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Table 1 Blood culture findings of patients investigated for sepsis at four different hospitals in Ethiopia

From: Sepsis: emerging pathogens and antimicrobial resistance in Ethiopian referral hospitals

  Sociodemographic data Blood culture result
   n (%) Bacterial growth n (%) No bacterial growth n (%) Possibly contaminants n (%) Yeast cells n (%)
Hospitals TASH 501 (35.4) 123 (24.6) 335 (66.9) 43 (8.6) 0(0.0)
Y12HMC 298 (21) 55 (18.5) 191 (64.1) 51 (17.1) 1 (0.3)
DRH 301 (21.3) 115 (38.2) 142 (47.2) 44 (14.6) 0 (0.0)
HUCSH 316 (22.3) 92 (29.1) 173 (54.7) 48 (15.2) 3 (0.9)
Gender Male 783 (55.3) 210 (26.8) 462 (59) 108 (13.8) 3 (0.4)
Female 633 (44.7) 175 (27.6) 379 (59.9) 78 (12.3) 1 (0.2)
Age category  < 29 days 586 (41.4) 230 (39.2) 258 (44) 94 (16) 4 (0.7)
 ≥ 30 days to ≤ 1 year 256 (18.1) 45 (17.6) 182 (71.1) 29 (11.3) 0 (0.0)
1–5 years 135 (9.5) 33 (24.4) 84 (62.2) 18 (13.3) 0 (0.0)
5–18 years 158 (11.2) 26 (16.5) 111 (70.3) 21 (13.3) 0 (0.0)
 ≥ 18 years 281 (19.8) 51 (18.1) 206 (73.3) 24 (8.5) 0 (0.0)
Ward EOPD 104 (7.3) 15 (14.4) 79(76) 10 (9.6) 0 (0.0)
ICU 38 (2.7) 8 (21.1) 28 (73.7) 2 (5.3) 0 (0.0)
Medical ward 148 (10.5) 24 (16.2) 111 (75) 13 (8.8) 0 (0.0)
NICU 596 (42.1) 232 (39.9) 265 (45.5) 95 (15.9) 4 (0.7)
Pediatrics 497 (35.1) 94 (18.9) 342 (68.8) 61 (12.3) 0 (0.0)
Surgical ward 33 (2.3) 12 (36.4) 16 (48.5) 5 (15.2) 0 (0.0)
Referral patient Yes 722 (51) 190 (26.3) 444 (61.5) 87 (12) 1 (0.1)
No 694 (49) 195 (28.1) 397 (57.2) 99 (14.3) 3 (0.4)
Previous admission Yes 299 (21.1) 69 (23.1) 197 (65.9) 32 (10.7) 1 (0.3)
No 1117 (78.9) 316 (28.3) 644 (57.7) 154 (13.8) 3 (0.3)
Hospital stay duration 1 week 828 (58.5) 244 (29.5) 464 (56) 117 (14.1) 3 (0.4)
2 weeks 222 (15.7) 52 (23.4) 141 (63.5) 28 (12.6) 1 (0.5)
3 weeks 146 (10.3) 35 (24) 97 (66.4) 14 (9.6) 0 (0.0)
4 weeks and above 220 (15.5) 54 (24.5) 139 (63.2) 27 (12.3) 0 (0.0)
Underlying diseases Yes 665 (47) 159 (23.9) 433(65.1) 71(10.7) 2 (0.3)
No 751 (53) 226 (30.1) 408(54.3) 115(15.3) 2 (0.3)
Previous antibiotic treatment before recruitment to the study Yes 440 (31.1) 121 (27.5) 269(61.1) 48(10.9) 2 (0.5)
No 976 (68.9) 264 (27) 572(58.6) 138(14.1) 2 (0.2)
Fever Up to 3 days 687 (64.4) 210 (30.6) 380 (55.3) 95 (13.8) 2 (0.3)
4–6 days 207 (19.4) 48 (23.2) 144 (69.6) 15 (7.2) 0 (0.0)
7 days and above 173 (16.2) 31 (17.9) 122 (70.5) 20 (11.6) 00 (0.0)
No 349 (24.6) 96 (27.5) 195 (55.9) 56 (16.0) 2 (0.6)
Total 1416 (100) 385 (27.2) 841 (59.4) 186 (13.1) 4 (0.3)
BMI class Underweight 749 (72.2) 173 (23.1) 472 (63) 102 (13.6) 2 (0.3)
Normal 233 (22.4) 47 (20.2) 163 (70) 23 (9.9) 0 (0.0)
Overweight 26 (2.5) 7 (26.9) 18 (69.2) 1 (3.8) 0 (0.0)
Obese 30 (2.9) 11 (36.7) 17 (56.7) 2 (6.7) 0 (0.0)
Total for BMI 1038 (100) 238 (22.9) 670 (64.5) 128 (12.3) 2 (0.2)
  1. TASH Tikur Anbessa Specialized Hospital; Y12HMC Yekatit 12 Specialized Hospital Medical College; DRH Dessie Referral Hospital, HUCSH Hawassa University Comprehensive Specialized Hospital; EOPD emergency outpatient department; ICU intensive care unit; NICU neonatal intensive care unit; BMI body mass index