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Table 3 Antimicrobial resistance pattern of Enterobacteriaceae, Acinetobacter and Pseudomonas species isolated from patients investigated for sepsis

From: Sepsis: emerging pathogens and antimicrobial resistance in Ethiopian referral hospitals

Gram negative isolates AMK AMP AMC SAM ATM FEP CTX CRO CAZ
I % R % I % R % I % R % I % R % I % R % I % R % I % R % I % R % I % R %
K. pneumoniae (n = 111) 15.3 7.2 0.9 99.1 24.3 55.9 13.5 73 4.5 93.7 9.0 83.8 0 96.4 0 96.4 0.9 95.5
K. variicola (n = 77) 18.2 0 1.3 98.7 27.3 29.9 11.7 53.2 3.9 63.6 3.9 62.3 0 67.5 0 67.5 0 67.5
E. coli (n = 53) 7.5 3.8 5.7 90.6 30.2 34 9.4 62.3 3.8 60.4 0 60.4 1.9 64.2 1.9 64.2 1.9 62.3
E. cloacae complex (n = 29) 20.7 3.4 3.4 93.1 6.9 79.3 6.9 65.5 0 62.1 6.9 51.7 3.4 58.6 6.9 58.6 0 58.6
P. dispersa (n = 21) 4.8 4.8 0 95.2 61.9 28.6 4.8 81.0 0 100 4.8 85.7 0 95.2 0 100 0 95.2
K. oxytoca (n = 13) 7.7 0 0 100 53.8 23.1 38.5 46.2 15.4 53.8 7.7 69.2 7.7 76.9 7.7 76.9 15.4 61.5
Rare Enterobacteriaceae isolates (n = 14) 0 7.1 7.1 85.7 35.7 21.4 21.4 28.6 7.1 28.6 14.3 35.7 7.1 57.1 14.3 57.1 14.3 50.0
Total Enterobacteriaceae (n = 318) 13.5 4.1 2.2 96.2 28.6 43.4 12.6 63.2 4.1 73.9 6.0 69.2 1.3 78.0 1.9 78.3 1.9 76.4
Acinetobacter species
Acinetobacter baumannii (n = 34) 8.8 14.7 2.9 70.6 2.9 82.4 5.9 91.2 11.8 88.2 5.9 85.3
Other Acinetobacter species (n = 8) 0 0 0 25 12.5 50 37.5 62.5 25 75 12.5 62.5
Total Acinetobacter species (n = 42) 7.1 11.9 2.4 61.9 4.8 76.2 11.2 85.7 14.3 85.7 7.1 81
Pseudomonas species
P. aeruginosa (n = 17) 5.9 5.9 29.4 35.3 0 29.4 17.6 17.6
Other Pseudomonas species (n = 2) 0 0 50 50 100 0 0 0
Total Pseudomonas species (n = 19) 5.3 5.3 31.6 36.8 10.5 26.3 15.8 15.8
Gram negative isolates CXM CIP C DO GEN MEM TZP SXT TE
I % R % I % R % I % R % I % R % I % R % I % R % I % R % I % R % I % R %
K. pneumoniae (n = 111) 1.8 94.6 2.7 59.5 1.8 43.2 4.5 65.8 1.8 82.0 0 17.1 9.0 18.0 0.9 85.6 1.8 70.3
K. variicola (n = 77) 0 68.8 0 37.7 1.3 5.2 5.2 32.5 1.3 67.5 0 1.3 7.8 3.9 0 36.4 0 41.6
E. coli (n = 53) 0 66 0 50.9 0 24.5 7.5 58.5 5.7 49.1 0 1.9 1.9 20.8 0 66 0 73.6
E. cloacae complex (n = 29) 3.4 58.6 3.4 44.8 3.4 37.9 13.8 37.9 3.4 44.8 3.4 24.1 3.4 31.0 0 55.2 6.9 55.2
P. dispersa (n = 21) 0 95.2 0 9.5 0 0 0 4.8 0 90.5 0 9.5 0 14.3 9.5 4.8 0 4.8
K. oxytoca (n = 13) 0 76.9 0 46.2 0 30.8 15.4 23.1 0 61.5 0 0 0 0 0 61.5 0 53.8
Rare Enterobacteriaceae isolates (n = 14) 0 57.1 14.3 28.6 0 21.4 7.1 21.4 7.1 35.7 0 0 0 7.1 0 42.9 0 42.9
Total Enterobacteriaceae (n = 318) 0.9 78.0 1.9 46.2 1.3 26.1 6.3 46.2 2.5 67.3 0.3 9.4 5.7 14.8 0.9 59.4 1.3 56.3
Acinetobacter species
Acinetobacter baumannii (n = 34) 0 41.2 2.9 26.5 0 64.7 0 58.8 8.8 67.6 2.9 82.4
Other Acinetobacter species (n = 8) 12.5 25 0 12.5 12.5 37.5 0 37.5 0 25 0 62.5
Total Acinetobacter species (n = 42)    2.4 38.1    2.4 23.8 2.4 59.5 2.4 54.8 7.1 59.5 2.4 78.6
Pseudomonas species
P. aeruginosa (n = 17) 11.8 17.6 5.9 35.3 0 5.9 0 5.9
Other Pseudomonas species (n = 2) 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Total Pseudomonas species (n = 19) 10.5 15.8 5.3 31.6 0 5.3 5.3 15.8
  1. R resistance; I intermediate; AMK amikacin; AMP ampicillin; AMC amoxicillin/clavulanate; SAM ampicillin-sulbactam; ATM aztreonam; FEP cefepime; CTX cefotaxime; CRO ceftriaxone; CAZ ceftazidime; CXM cefuroxime; CIP ciprofloxacin; C chloramphenicol; DO doxycycline; GEN gentamicin; MEM meropenem; TZP piperacillin/tazobactam; SXT trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole; TE tetracycline