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Table 5 Summary of findings from studies that included statistical comparisons with respect to transmission of SARS for Specific AGMPs*

From: Risk of transmission of respiratory viruses during aerosol-generating medical procedures (AGMPs) revisited in the COVID-19 pandemic: a systematic review

AGMP AGMP activity Author Study design Sample size Odds ratioa (95%CI)
Airway Suctioning After intubation Loeb [63] Retrospective cohort AGMP: n = 19
Control: n = 13
0.68 (0.21 to 2.26)
Before intubation Loeb [63] Retrospective cohort AGMP: n = 4
Control: n = 28
4.2 (1.58 to 11.14)
Endotracheal aspirate Loeb [63] Retrospective cohort AGMP: n = 12
Control: n = 20
1.0 (0.29 to 3.45)
Present in room after intubation Raboud [55] Retrospective cohort AGMP: n = 165
Control: n = 459
1.63 (0.97 to 2.73)
Present in room before intubation Raboud [55] Retrospective cohort AGMP: n = 113
Control: n = 511
1.78 (0.97 to 3.29)
Bronchoscopy Performed Loeb [63] Retrospective cohort AGMP: n = 2
Control: n = 30
2.14 (0.46 to 9.9)
CPR Performed Loeb [63] Retrospective cohort AGMP: n = 3
Control: n = 29
AGMP cases: 0
Control cases: 8
p = 0.55
Present in room during compressions Raboud [55] Retrospective cohort AGMP: n = 9
Control: n = 615
6.39 (3.27 to 12.5)
Present in room during defibrillation Raboud [55] Retrospective cohort AGMP: n = 4
Control: n = 620
15.73 (5.27 to 46.9)
Close proximity (< 1 m) Liu [62] Case–control AGMP: n = 15
Control: n = 462
AGMP cases: 5
Control cases: 51
p = 0.02
Intubation Performed Chen [65] Retrospective cohort AGMP: n = 33
Control: n = 715
8.03 (3.9 to 16.56)
Performed or assisted Fowler [64] Retrospective cohort AGMP: n = 14
Control: n = 62
RR: 13.29 (2.99 to 59.04)
Performed Loeb [63] Retrospective cohort AGMP: n = 4
Control: n = 28
4.2 (1.58 to 11.14)
Present in room Raboud [55] Retrospective cohort AGMP: n = 144
Control: n = 480
2.92 (1.7 to 5.03)
Close proximity (< 1 m) Liu [62] Case–control AGMP: n = 12
Control: n = 465
AGMP cases: 6
Control cases: 45
p =  < 0.001
Performed/Assisted Teleman [58] Case–control AGMP: n = 6
Control: n = 80
1.5 (0.4 to 5.4)
Performed Pei [60] Case–control AGMP: n = 37
Control: n = 406
30.79 (7.91 to 119.84)b
Manual Ventilation Performed Loeb [63] Retrospective cohort AGMP: n = 7
Control: n = 25
1.19 (0.3 to 4.65)
Present in room during on-invasive ventilation Raboud [55] Retrospective cohort AGMP: n = 109
Control: n = 515
1.37 (0.14 to 13.1)
Present in room during manual ventilation after intubation Raboud [55] Retrospective cohort AGMP: n = 120
Control: n = 504
1.83 (1.09 to 3.07)
Present in room during manual ventilation before intubation Raboud [55] Retrospective cohort AGMP: n = 118
Control: n = 506
2.68 (1.34 to 5.35)
Present > 30 min during use of NPPV Scales [59] Retrospective cohort AGMP: n = 22
Control: n = 9
105 (3 to 3035)
Mechanical Ventilation Present in room Raboud [55] Retrospective cohort AGMP: n = 236
Control: n = 388
1.06 (0.49 to 2.3)
Nebulizer Performed Loeb [63] Retrospective cohort AGMP: n = 5
Control: n = 27
3.24 (1.11 to 9.42)
Oxygen administration Manipulated BiPAP mask Loeb [63] Retrospective cohort AGMP: n = 6
Control: n = 26
2.6 (0.8 to 7.99)
Manipulated oxygen mask Loeb [63] Retrospective cohort AGMP: n = 14
Control: n = 18
9 (1.25 to 64.89)
Present in room during procedure Raboud [55] Retrospective cohort AGMP: n = 108
Control: n = 516
0.67(0.43 to 1.04)
Performed Teleman [58] Case–control AGMP: n = 17
Control: n = 69
1.0 (0.3 to 2.8)
Tracheostomy Performed Chen [65] Retrospective cohort AGMP: n = 17
Control: n = 731
4.15 (1.5 to 11.5)
  1. Bolded estimates represent statistically significant results (p < 0.05). Details pertaining to patients and settings and studies that only reported count data but no statistical comparisons can be found in Table 2
  2. AGMP aerosol-generating medical procedure; CI confidence interval; RR risk ratio
  3. aOdds Ratio unless otherwise specified
  4. bAdjusted odds ratio reported because unadjusted odds ratios could not be found