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Table 2 Summary of health care and research recommendations

From: A qualitative study examining the impact of multidrug-resistant organism (MDRO) carriage on the daily lives of carriers and parents of carriers with experiences of hospital precautionary measures

Feeling dirty and unworthy  
   Be mindful of language usage when describing MDRO to carriers
   Ensure that patients do not feel like lepers and outcasts by avoiding them, or serving them last
   Mitigate loneliness by ensuring regular contacts between staff and patients
   Ensure that patients do not feel imprisoned in isolation rooms
   Take into account that MDRO carriage is an additional affliction often compounding other serious medical conditions, and that carriers may need all the support they can get
MDROs are invisible, but impact is visible  
   Acknowledge the fears that patients have and provide support and advice
   Minimize the disruptive effects that MDRO status can have on people’s lives, for example by facilitating efforts to remove the status of MDRO carriage from their dossiers
Carrying burden on one’s own shoulder  
   Provide clear information (written and verbal) to carriers on what is currently known and unknown about MDRO carriage, including what to tell their network of family, friends and acquaintances regarding their infectiousness
   Acknowledge the confusion due to discrepancies in behaviours/ policies and align these behaviours and policies where possible
   Improve the general knowledge of staff dealing with MDROs, so that everyone is on the same page
   Provide follow-up care for patients beyond the hospital doors into their further lives
   Consider that negative experiences associated with MDRO carriage may lead to less transparency by MDRO carriers and hesitance in being tested for resistant microbes
Further research  
   Conduct qualitative research with MDRO carriers in the general population representing a younger and healthier population
   Conduct qualitative research with HCPs who treat MDRO carriers to discuss the perspectives expressed by MDRO carriers and possible solutions
   To enable more targeted support, investigate the associations of MDRO characteristics (including demographics, other medical conditions and types of MDRO) with experiences and perceptions, including fear and shame
   Examine the impact of COVID-19 on the prevalence of MDRO carriers as well as on perceptions of precautionary measures and of being a carrier