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Table 2 The subcategories and categories of the barriers to rational antibiotic prescription in Iran

From: Barriers to rational antibiotic prescription in Iran: a descriptive qualitative study

Subcategories Categories
Physicians’ limited professional knowledge Physicians’ limited professional competence
Physicians’ poor attitude towards RAP
Physicians’ routine-based practice instead of evidence-based practice
Physicians’ limited accountability
Physicians’ fear over the legal consequences of not prescribing antibiotics
Physicians’ financial motives
Limited access to quality educational materials Poor informational and functional resources
Poor in-service training for physicians
Lack of culturally appropriate guidelines
Inefficiency of the stewardship committee
Limited supervision of physicians’ performance Ineffective supervision of RAP
Ineffective managerial supervision
Limited supervision of sampling for antimicrobial susceptibility testing
Sociocultural factors contributing to IRAP Inappropriate context for RAP
Poor adherence of insurance companies to their financial commitments
Financial incentives of pharmaceutical companies for physicians