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Table 1 Efficacy of three alcohol-based hand disinfectants; two experiments per product were performed according to EN 1500 (1997) to demonstrate a lack of superiority of the reference procedure using the Wilcoxon matched-pairs signed ranks test, one according to prEN 1500 (2009) to demonstrate non-inferiority of the test product using the Hodges & Lehmann (H&L) test

From: Efficacy of hand rubs with a low alcohol concentration listed as effective by a national hospital hygiene society in Europe

Test product Active ingredient(s) (concentration; all w/w) Mean log10-reduction reference procedure (2 × 3 ml for 2 × 30 s) Mean log10-reduction product (3 ml for 30 s) p-value/Hodges & Lehmann value
Product 1 Ethanol (70%) 4.62 ± 0.89 3.87 ± 0.79 p < 0.1
5.00 ± 0.87 4.38 ± 0.87 p < 0.1
4.99 ± 0.90 4.06 ± 0.86 H&L: 1.300
Product 2 Ethanol (70%) 4.65 ± 0.97 3.95 ± 0.75 p < 0.1
5.00 ± 0.87 4.29 ± 0.76 p < 0.1
4.93 ± 0.46 4.04 ± 0.92 H&L: 1.365
Product 3 Ethanol (60%), Isopropanol (15%) 4.65 ± 0.97 3.99 ± 1.04 p < 0.1
5.15 ± 0.75 5.30 ± 0.94 n.a.
4.99 ± 0.90 4.27 ± 0.72 H&L: 1.095
  1. n.a., not applicable.