The study involved a baseline phase (08/2010-2/2011) followed by an intervention period (3/2011-12/2011) and a sustainability phase (1/2012-12/2012). During the baseline phase, every HA-MRSA BSI was analysed through a RCA to identify those caused by PVC. At the same time, practices related to PVC insertion and maintenance were audited. During the intervention phase: (1) a new hospital policy, insertion record and maintenance checklist for daily assessment and documentation were launched, (2) Visual Infusion Phlebitis (VIP score) tool and PVC duration not exceeding 72 hrs, (3) hands-on training for junior doctors on insertion and educational sessions for all nursing staff on PVC ongoing care were provided, (4) and the introduction of a semi-permeable transparent dressing. Auditing and feedback with corrective action on non-conformities were undertaken in all of the hospital wards during the sustainability period.