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Table 5 Risk factors for ventilator-associated pneumonia in pediatric and neonatal settings

From: Ventilator-associated pneumonia in neonates, infants and children

Risk factor Reference (Author, Ref No) Setting Patients VAP, n VAP, % Odds ratio [95% CI] P-value
Gender (female) Srinivasan [77] NICU/ PICU 60 19 32 10.3 [52.9-37.2] <0.001
Genetic syndromes Elward [46] PICU 595 34 5.1 2.4 [1.0-5.5] 0.043
Trauma Bigham [72] PICU 2846 42 1.47 - 0.020
Post-surgical admission diagnosis Srinivasan [77] NICU/ PICU 60 19 32 10.0 [2.2-46.1] 0.003
Subglottic or tracheal stenosis Bigham [72] PICU 2846 42 1.47 - 0.020
PRISM III score >10 Roeleveld [37] Cardiac surgery 125 11 8.8 4.4 [1.1-18.0] 0.041
Prolonged ventilation Awasthi [19] Ventilatory units 105 38 36.2 3.8 [1.4- 10.0] 0.008
  Casado [51] PICU 366 39 10.7 1.0 [1.0-1.1] 0.017
Reintubation Patria [25] PICU 451 30 6.6 9.5 [3.3-26.8] <0.001
  Elward [46] PICU 595 34 5.1 2.7 [1.2-6.2] 0.011
Tracheostomy Patria [25] PICU 451 30 6.6 4.4 [1.0-20.0] 0.040
  Bigham [72] PICU 2846 42 1.47 - 0.040
Bronchoscopy Almuneef [28] PICU 361 37 10.3 5.0 [1.7-15.3] <0.001
Use of gastric tube Casado [51] PICU 366 39 10.7 2.9 [1.4-5.9] 0.003
Enteral feeding Patria [25] PICU 451 30 6.6 13.2 [1.5-114.2] 0.020
  Srinivasan [77] NICU/PICU 60 19 32 8.8 [2.1- 36.2] 0.003
  Almuneef [28] PICU 361 37 10.3 2.3 [1.1-4.8] 0.004
Prior antibiotic therapy Almuneef [28] PICU 361 37 10.3 2.5 [1.1-5.4] 0.026
Administration of blood products Srinivasan [77] NICU/PICU 60 19 32 0.1 [0.02- 0.6] 0.009
Use of sedatives/analgesics Srinivasan [77] NICU/PICU 60 19 32 77.5 [7.1- 844.6] <0.001
  Casado [51] PICU 366 39 10.7 2.5 [1.3-4.7] 0.007
Neuromuscular blockade Da Silva [80] PICU 317 - 5 - 0.010
Transport out of the PICU* Elward [46] PICU 595 34 5.1 8.9 [3.8-20.7] <0.001
  1. VAP: ventilator-associated pneumonia; PICU: pediatric intensive care unit.
  2. *Transport out of the PICU for diagnostic procedures or medical interventions.