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Antibiotic resistance profile of Staphylococcusaureus clinical isolates from Nigeria
© Ayepola et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. 2015
Published: 16 June 2015
Hospital-acquired infections with Staphylococcus aureus have increased over the years and the rise in incidence has been accompanied by a rise in antibiotic-resistant strains notably methicillin-resistant S aureus (MRSA) and more recently vancomycin-resistant strains. In order to have adequate information for treatment of infections caused by S. aureus, it is important to understand trends in the antibiotic-resistance patterns as well as diversity of strains across geographical regions.
The aim of this study was to provide information on the antibiotic resistance profile and molecular characteristics of S. aureus strains from Nigeria.
A total of 209 non-duplicate S. aureus isolates obtained from clinical infections in eight medical centres were analyzed. Identification and antimicrobial susceptibility profile was performed with the automated VITEK-2 system. Detection of antibiotic resistance and virulence genes in the S. aureus strains was by polymerase chain reaction.
Resistance was observed against penicillin (97.1%); trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (83.7%), tetracycline (13.8%), levofloxacin (5.7%) and gentamicin(4.8%). All strains were susceptible to azithromycin, clarithromycin, erythromycin, clindamycin, linezolid, vancomycin, nitrofurantoin, fusidic acid, mupirocin and rifampicin. The β-lactamase (blaZ)gene was found in 95% of allstrains (n=198) while 2.87% (n=6) possessed the mecA gene. The staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCC mec) typing of MRSA strains detected SCC mec type IV in one strain. A particular MRSA strain was the only strain found to be resistant to teicoplanin, tigecycline and fosfomycin. Fifty-six percent of the strains possessed the panton valentine leukocidin (PVL) encoding gene.
A rise in PVL-positive S. aureus strains in Africa is of great concern as this could promote the emergence of highly virulent strains. The continuous surveillance of antibiotic resistance in S. aureus is important to prevent the spread of multidrug resistant strains.
Disclosure of interest
This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver (http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.