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  • Open Access

Preventing infection transfer from health facilities to rural communities

  • 1,
  • 1 and
  • 1
Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control20154(Suppl 1):P253

https://doi.org/10.1186/2047-2994-4-S1-P253

Published: 16 June 2015

Keywords

  • Health Facility
  • Calcium Hydroxide
  • Septic Tank
  • Effluent Stream
  • Domestic Chore

Introduction

In developing countries especially sub Saharan Africa, the pressure of increased population has led to increasing new concerns for a proper and affordable waste disposal treatment in health care facilities. Effluents of hospital wastes are discharged into streams which are the major source of water supply for inhabitants of most communities. The non-existence of portable water supply in most communities has led to dependence on these streams for drinking, irrigation and other domestic chores which in turn results in outbreak of gastrointestinal infections in surrounding communities.

Objectives

To examine the impact of infectious waste transfer from health facilities to rural communities

Methods

Fecal samples and sewage obtained from effluent streams adjacent to health facilities, ill maintained waste treatment plants and control samples from patients at nearby health facilities were screened for parasitic ova, cyst and larva. Graded doses of Calcium Hydroxide (Ca (OH)2) was added into these samples and re-screened for parasites.

Results

Distribution of parasites in effluent streams and waste plants adjacent to health facilities showed significant occurrence (P<0.05) of C. sinensis (38.4%), A. lumbricoides (23.1%), T. trichura (33.3%), S. stercoralis (44.4%) and I. belli (33.3%) respectively. Lime (Ca (OH)2) treatment caused a significant reduction in the number of parasites at PH 8.0 and 10.0. Higher PH, increase in temperature and longer exposure to pretreatment with (Ca (OH)2) were observed as important factors for parasite eradication in these samples.

Conclusion

Inefficient waste disposal systems, non-functional waste treatment plants, poor supply of portable water as well as government’s general neglect of health issues has greatly increased enteric diseases in developing countries. Hence it is necessary that human waste be properly treated to eliminate all pathogenic organisms before disposal. Lime Stabilization technique has proven to be a simple, safe, cost effective, easily available and environmentally protective alternative model for waste treatment especially in resource constrained settings. It is worth suggesting in the light of this work that lime be added in sufficient doses into septic tank of hospitals before disposal in order to avoid contamination by parasites including residuals reaching effluent streams.

Disclosure of interest

None declared.

Authors’ Affiliations

(1)
Medical Laboratory Sciences, University of Nigeria, Enugu, Nigeria

Copyright

© Nwuba et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. 2015

This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver (http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.

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