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Table 1 TEWL—by agent and intervention period (safety population, n = 22)

From: Safety and tolerability of virucidal hand rubs: a randomized, double-blind, cross-over trial with healthy volunteers

Agent
  P1 P2 P3 R
Intervention period n Mean SD n Mean SD n Mean SD n Mean SD
 1 5 21.26 4.92 6 19.25 6.17 4 13.93 3.39 4 26.93 5.07
 2 5 17.92 2.63 5 19.94 9.41 6 15.48 3.08 4 23.98 6.39
 3 3 28.03 12.99 4 13.40 2.72 3 20.67 1.33 5 23.74 8.20
 4 5 24.08 3.26 5 13.02 2.11 5 17.08 5.09 4 21.50 6.95
  1. P1 = Ethanol (100 %) 45 g, 1-Propanol (Ph.Eur.) 18 g (Softa-Man® acute, B. Braun Melsungen AG), P2 = Ethanol (99 %) 95 g (Sterillium® virugard, Bode Chemie Hamburg GmbH), and, P3 = Ethanol (96 %) 57,6 g, 1-Propanol (Ph.Eur.) 10 g (Manorapid® Synergy, Antiseptica GmbH) , R (reference product) = Ethanol (100 %) 45 g, 1-Propanol (Ph.Eur.) 18 g (Softa-Man® pure, B. Braun Melsungen AG), n = number, SD = standard deviation