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Table 1 Colonization of European LTCF residents with MRSA and ESBL producing Enterobacteriaceae

From: Review on colonization of residents and staff in Italian long-term care facilities by multidrug-resistant bacteria compared with other European countries

Country, year Residents/LTCFs (number) Specimen type MRSA % (range %) ESBL % (range %) Referencesa
Sweden, 2008 495/9 Rectal 0.0 3.0 [54]b
Sweden, 2010 163/1 Catheter Urine   0.6 [55]
Sweden, 2014 91/10 Rectal   11 [56]b
Netherlands, 2009 1268/12 Nasal 0.3   [57]
Netherlands, 2012–14 4763 (MRSA), 5421 (ESBL)/107 Nasal (MRSA) Urine (ESBL, E. coli) 0.3 2.2 [51]
Germany, 2009 1827/32 Nasal and/or wound 7.6 (0–18.6)   [45]
Germany, 2010–11 240/11 Rectal   9.6 (0–30) [18]
Germany, 2012 150/8 MRSA: nasal, pharyngeal ESBL: perineal 9.2 26.7 [8]
Germany, 2013 690/26 (MRSA), 455/26 (ESBL) Nasal, pharyngeal, perineal 6.5 17.8 [7]
Germany, 2013–14 2858/65 Nasal, pharyngeal 4.8 (0–26.7)   [46]
Germany, 2013–14 156/31 Rectal   14.7 [19]
Luxembourg, 2010 954/19 Nasal, pharyngeal 7.2 (0–16)   [49]
Slovenia, 2001–02 107/1 Nasal and skin 9.3   [10]
France, 2004 109/1 Nasal, rectal 37.6   [52]
France, 2013 1155/38 Rectal or urine   9.9 (0.0–28.6) [58]
Belgium, 2005 2953/60 Nasal, pharyngeal, wound, urine 19.5 (2.0–42.9)   [47]
Belgium, 2011 2791/60 Nasal, pharyngeal, wound, rectal 12.2 (0–36) 6.2 (0–20) [6]
Spain, 2003 413/4 Nasal, skin 22.5 (17.2–35.5)   [59]
Spain, 2005 1377/9 Nasal 16.8 (6.7–35.8)   [60]
Spain, 2009–10 744/17 Nasal 19.6   [61]
UK, 2005 715/39 Nasal 22.2 (0–50)   [42]
UK, 2005–07 3037/69 Nasal 20 (19–21)   [43]
UK, 2006–09 2492/65 Nasal 20.5   [44]
Ireland, 2004–06 294/16 Rectal (only E. coli)   40.5 (0–75) [17]
Ireland, 2005–06 1111/45 Nasal 23.3 (0–73)   [9]
Ireland, 2012–13 64/1 Nasal, rectal, urine 27 55 [4]b
  1. aAll studies are point prevalence studies, except three (b) that follow residents over three months [56], two years [54] or one year [4], respectively