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Table 4 Risk factors for colonization of Italian and other European LTCF residents with ESBL producing Enterobacteriaceae and/or MRSA

From: Review on colonization of residents and staff in Italian long-term care facilities by multidrug-resistant bacteria compared with other European countries

Risk factor

Bacterial resistance phenotype

References (Italy)

References (Other European countries)

High age

ESBL, MRSA

[13]

[8, 9, 60]

Male sex

ESBL, MRSA

 

[6, 9, 42, 46]

Physical disability, bedridden, low functional status

ESBL, MRSA

[13, 23]

[6, 8, 4547, 49, 5961]

Prolonged duration of stay in LTCF

MRSA

[23]

 

Invasive medical devices (urinary catheter, percutaneous enteral gastrostomy tube, tracheostomy tube)

ESBL, MRSA

[13, 20]

[7, 8, 42, 45, 46, 52, 59, 60]

Previous administration of antibiotics within the preceding year

ESBL, MRSA

[13, 20, 62]

[6, 7, 17, 4749, 51, 52, 54, 5861]

Colonization history by the same microorganism

ESBL, MRSA

 

[6, 7, 46, 49, 59, 61]

MDR bacteria carriage of other residents

MRSA

 

[46, 51]

Multiple room occupancy, MDR carrier in the same room

MRSA

 

[46]

Residency in specific unit within LTCF

ESBL, MRSA

[13, 14, 62]

 

Prior admission to acute care hospital

ESBL, MRSA

[20, 62]

[42, 4547, 58, 60, 61]

Surgical procedures within 30 days

ESBL

[20]

 

Cancer

ESBL, MRSA

[13, 62]

[58]

Decubitus ulcer

ESBL, MRSA

[22]

[46, 48, 59, 60]

Various wounds, skin lesions

MRSA, ESBL

 

[6, 8, 4547, 59]

Peptic ulcer, use of antiacids

ESBL, MRSA

[20]

[6]

Chronic renal failure

ESBL

[20]

 

History of urinary tract infections

ESBL

 

[17]

Urinary and faecal incontinency

ESBL, MRSA

[23]

[8, 58]

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)

ESBL, MRSA

[13, 20]

 

Diabetes

ESBL

[20]

[8]