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Table 4 Risk factors for colonization of Italian and other European LTCF residents with ESBL producing Enterobacteriaceae and/or MRSA

From: Review on colonization of residents and staff in Italian long-term care facilities by multidrug-resistant bacteria compared with other European countries

Risk factor Bacterial resistance phenotype References (Italy) References (Other European countries)
High age ESBL, MRSA [13] [8, 9, 60]
Male sex ESBL, MRSA   [6, 9, 42, 46]
Physical disability, bedridden, low functional status ESBL, MRSA [13, 23] [6, 8, 4547, 49, 5961]
Prolonged duration of stay in LTCF MRSA [23]  
Invasive medical devices (urinary catheter, percutaneous enteral gastrostomy tube, tracheostomy tube) ESBL, MRSA [13, 20] [7, 8, 42, 45, 46, 52, 59, 60]
Previous administration of antibiotics within the preceding year ESBL, MRSA [13, 20, 62] [6, 7, 17, 4749, 51, 52, 54, 5861]
Colonization history by the same microorganism ESBL, MRSA   [6, 7, 46, 49, 59, 61]
MDR bacteria carriage of other residents MRSA   [46, 51]
Multiple room occupancy, MDR carrier in the same room MRSA   [46]
Residency in specific unit within LTCF ESBL, MRSA [13, 14, 62]  
Prior admission to acute care hospital ESBL, MRSA [20, 62] [42, 4547, 58, 60, 61]
Surgical procedures within 30 days ESBL [20]  
Cancer ESBL, MRSA [13, 62] [58]
Decubitus ulcer ESBL, MRSA [22] [46, 48, 59, 60]
Various wounds, skin lesions MRSA, ESBL   [6, 8, 4547, 59]
Peptic ulcer, use of antiacids ESBL, MRSA [20] [6]
Chronic renal failure ESBL [20]  
History of urinary tract infections ESBL   [17]
Urinary and faecal incontinency ESBL, MRSA [23] [8, 58]
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) ESBL, MRSA [13, 20]  
Diabetes ESBL [20] [8]