Skip to main content

Table 1 Characteristics and Antibiotic Use of 1884 Fever Patients Presenting at Singapore Polyclinics, December 2007-February 2013

From: Patterns of medication use and factors associated with antibiotic use among adult fever patients at Singapore primary care clinics

Characteristics N (%) Antibiotic use, n (%) p-value
Age in years
 17–24 482 (25.6) 80 (16.6) 0.052
 25–34 529 (28.1) 65 (12.3)
 35–44 309 (16.4) 55 (17.8)
 45–54 279 (14.8) 52 (18.6)
 55–64 193 (10.2) 37 (19.2)
 65 and above 92 (4.9) 20 (21.7)
Gender
 Female 649 (34.4) 129 (19.9) 0.003
 Male 1235 (65.6) 180 (14.6)
Year of enrolment
 Dec 2007–2008 146 (7.7) 28 (19.2) 0.003
 2009 232 (12.3) 53 (22.8)
 2010 611 (32.4) 76 (12.4)
 2011 576 (30.6) 102 (17.7)
 2012-Feb 2013 319 (16.9) 50 (15.7)
Recruiting polyclinic
 Polyclinic A 928 (49.3) 220 (23.7) <0.001
 Polyclinic B 620 (32.9) 52 (8.4)
 Polyclinic C 193 (10.2) 19 (9.8)
 Polyclinic D 101 (5.4) 5 (5.0)
 Polyclinic E 42 (2.2) 13 (31.0)
Body Mass Index (kg/m2)
 <18.5 162 (8.6) 39 (24.1) <0.001
 18.5–22.9 798 (42.4) 111 (13.9)
 23–27.4 634 (33.7) 93 (14.7)
 ≥27.5 290 (15.4) 66 (22.8)
Ethnicity
 Chinese 958 (50.8) 182 (19.0) 0.001
 Indian 312 (16.6) 39 (12.5)
 Malay 330 (17.5) 59 (17.9)
 Other 283 (15.0) 29 (10.2)
 Missing values 1 (0.1)   
Housing type
 Condominium 66 (3.5) 13 (19.7) <0.001
 Dormitory/Hostel 228 (12.1) 9 (3.9)
 Public housing (HDB flat) 1399 (74.3) 251 (17.9)
 Landed Property 118 (6.3) 29 (24.6)
 Work site 71 (3.8) 7 (9.9)
 Missing values 2 (0.1)   
Duration of illness
 ≤5 days 1053 (55.9) 135 (12.8) <0.001
 >5 days 760 (40.3) 168 (22.1)
 Missing values 71 (3.8)   
Diabetes
 No 1797 (95.4) 286 (15.9) 0.01
 Yes 87 (4.6) 23 (26.4)
Initial body temperature (° C)
 <38 596 (31.6) 83 (13.9) 0.047
 38–38.9 921 (48.9) 153 (16.6)
 ≥39 365 (19.4) 73 (20.0)
 Missing values 2 (0.1)   
Number of initial symptoms other than fever
 0–2 280 (14.9) 27 (9.6) 0.002
 3–4 487 (25.8) 74 (15.2)
 5–7 657 (34.9) 118 (18.0)
 8–15 460 (24.4) 90 (19.6)
Number of initial visit symptoms persisting at the first follow-upa
 0 821 (43.6) 79 (9.6) <0.001
 1 358 (19.0) 64 (17.9)
 2 264 (14.0) 60 (22.7)
 3 154 (8.2) 52 (33.8)
 ≥4 246 (13.1) 54 (22.0)
 Missing values 41 (2.2)   
Occurrence of new symptoms reported at the first follow-upa
 0 1214 (64.4) 175 (14.4) 0.001
 1 372 (19.7) 76 (20.4)
 2 155 (8.2) 32 (20.6)
 ≥3 102 (5.4) 26 (25.5)
 Missing values 41 (2.2)   
Influenza-like illnessb
 No 1123 (59.6) 160 (14.2) 0.002
 Yes 759 (40.3) 149 (19.6)
 Missing values 2 (0.1)   
Type of employment
 Not employed 365 (19.4) 61 (16.7) 0.284
 Blue collar 1032 (54.8) 155 (15.0)
 White collar 438 (23.2) 83 (18.9)
 Other 47 (2.5) 9 (19.1)
 Missing values 2 (0.1)   
Season
 NEM 479 (25.4) 77 (16.1) 0.821
 PSWM 395 (21.0) 63 (15.9)
 SWM 709 (37.6) 114 (16.1)
 PNEM 301 (16.0) 55 (18.3)
Hospitalization as a result of febrile illness
 Not hospitalized 1831 (97.2) 301 (16.4) 0.354
 Hospitalized 53 (2.8) 8 (15.1)
WBC count at initial visit (×109 cells/L)
 Leukopenia (<4) 204 (10.8) 26 (12.7) 0.001
 Normal range (4–11) 1362 (72.3) 210 (15.4)
 Leukocytosis (>11) 305 (16.2) 71 (23.3)
 Missing values 13 (0.7)   
Anemia at initial visit (hemoglobin concentration in g/dl)#
 No anemia (male, ≥13; female, ≥12) 1685 (89.4) 281 (16.7) 0.702
 Mild anemia (male, 11–12.9; female, 11–11.9) 121 (6.4) 17 (14.0)
 Moderate anemia (8–10.9) 48 (2.5) 6 (12.5)
 Severe anemia (<8) 10 (0.5) 1 (10.0)
 Missing values 20 (1.1)   
Platelet count at initial visit (plt/μL)
 Thrombocytopenia (<150) 279 (14.8) 42 (15.1) 0.609
 Normal range (150–400) 1547 (82.1) 260 (16.8)
 Thrombocytosis (>400) 40 (2.1) 5 (12.5)
 Missing values 18 (1.0)   
  1. HDB Housing and Development Board, NEM Northeast Monsoon Season (December to mid-March), PSWM Pre Southwest Monsoon (mid-March to May), SWM Southwest Monsoon (June to September), PNEM Pre Northeast Monsoon (October to November), WBC White Blood Cells
  2. a2–3 days after the initial visit
  3. bInfluenza-like illness is defined as fever of ≥38 °C and cough according to WHO [12]
  4. #Anemia as defined by haemoglobin concentration cut-offs from World Health Organization [28]