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Table 5 Multivariate analysis of the factors associated with hand hygiene compliance in the pre-and post-intervention phase

From: Intervening with healthcare workers’ hand hygiene compliance, knowledge, and perception in a limited-resource hospital in Indonesia: a randomized controlled trial study

Factors Univariate P value Multivariate P value
Number of HH compliance (%) OR 95% CI
PI (n = 223) PoI (n = 315)
Department:    <0.001    
 Obst-gyn 40 (17.9) 61 (19.4)   1   
 Internal medicine 20 (9.0) 74 (23.5)   - - NS
 Pediatric 80 (35.9) 107 (34.0)   4.078 1.513–10.994 0.005
 Surgery 83 (37.2) 73 (23.2)   1.963 1.178–3.270 0.010
Class of room facilities:    <0.001    
 Class I 1 (0.4) 20 (6.3)   1 - NS
 Class II 108 (48.4) 175 (55.6)   - 1.168–3.400 0.011
 Class III 114 (51.1) 120 (38.1)   1.993   
Room type:    <0.001    
 Neonatology 50 (22.4) 72 (22.9)   - - NS
 General ward 92 (41.3) 192 (61.0)   1.710 1.002–2.918 0.049
 High/acute care unit 81 (36.3) 51 (16.2)   1   
Ratio nurse: patients:       NS
 1:2 30 (13.5) 35 (11.1) 0.015    
 1:4–6 174 (78.0) 226 (71.7)     
 1:8 19 (8.5) 54 (17.1)     
Moment of HH:    <0.001    
 Moment 1 57 (25.6) 29 (9.2)   1.442 1.057–1.968 0.021
 Moment 2 7 (3.1) 9 (2.9)    - NS
 Moment 3 2 (0.9) 1 (0.3)    - NS
 Moment 4 112 (50.2) 187 (59.4)   2.333 1.850–2.943 <0.001
 Moment 5 45 (20.2) 89 (28.3)   1   
HCW categories:    <0.001 -   
 Doctor 31 (13.9) 76 (24.1)   1.366 1.012–1.843 0.042
 Nurse 84 (37.7) 176 (55.9)   1.279 1.019–1.604 0.034
 Student 108 (48.4) 63 (20.0)   1   
  1. Abbreviations: HH hand hygiene, PI pre-intervention, PoI post-intervention, HCW healthcare workers
  2. Moment 1: before touching a patient; Moment 2: before a procedure; Moment 3: after a procedure or body fluid exposure risk; Moment 4: after touching a patient; Moment 5: after touching a patient’s surroundings