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Table 3 Univariate analyses of demographic, preoperative, and intraoperative characteristics of patients with and without surgical site infection in the cohort of 1173 patients

From: Incidence and risk factors for surgical site infections in obstetric and gynecological surgeries from a teaching hospital in rural India

Variable Total (n = 1173) No SSI (n = 1081) (%) SSI (n = 92) (%) Odds Ratio (OR) 95% CI of OR P value
Age (in years)
 10–25 310 298 (96) 12 (4) R - -
  > 25–40 468 430 (92) 38 (8) 2.19 1.12–4.26 0.021
  > 40 395 353 (89) 42 (11) 2.95 1.52–5.71 0.001
Parity
 Primiparous 157 155 (99) 2 (1) R - -
 Multiparous 192 185 (96) 7 (6) 2.93 0.60–14.3 0.184
 Grand-multiparous 28 27 (96) 1 (6) 2.87 0.25–32.7 0.396
 Non pregnant 796 714 (90) 82 (10) 8.90 2.16–36.58 0.002
Number of vaginal examinations 48 h. before surgery
 None 890 872 (98) 18 (2) R - -
 1–9 187 115 (83) 32 (17) 10.00 5.47–18.26 <0.005
  > 10 96 54 (56) 42 (44) 37.67 20.33–69.81 <0.005
Vaginal discharge
Absent 1084 1022 (94) 62 (6) R   
Present 89 59 (66) 30 (31) 5.46 3.35–8.88 <0.005
Variable All (N = 1173) No SSI (n = 1081) (%) SSI (n = 92) (%) Odds Ratio (OR) 95% CI of OR P value
Blood glucose levels
 Normal 677 628 (93) 49 (7) R -  
 High 92 57 (62) 35 (38) 7.86 4.7–13.12 <0.005
Medical illness#
 Absent 947 917 (97) 30 (3) R -  
 Present 226 164 (73) 62 (27) 11.55 7.24–18.42 <0.005
ASA class
 Class 1 or 2 1111 1052 (95) 59 (5) R -  
 Class 3–5 62 29 (47) 33 (53) 20.28 11.54–35.64 <0.005
Emergency surgery
 No 882 830 (94) 52 (6) R -  
 Yes 291 251 (86) 40 (14) 2.54 1.64–3.93 <0.005
Type of anesthesia
 Local or spinal 889 839 (94) 50 (6) R -  
 General anesthesia 284 284 (85) 42 (15) 2.91 1.88–4.49 <0.005
Concurrent surgical procedure
 No 1067 1005 (94) 62 (6) R -  
 Yes 106 76 (72) 30 (28) 6.39 3.90–10.48 >0.005
Duration of surgery (hr.)
 Less than 1 262 250 (95) 12 (5) R - -
 1–4 852 787 (92) 65 (8) 1.72 0.91–3.23 0.92
 More than 4 41 26 (63) 15 (37) 5.67 5.08–28.39 <0.005
Antibiotic prophylaxis
 Within 1 h 524* 512 (98) 12 (2) R -  
 After 1 h 640* 562 (88) 78 (12) 5.92 3.18–11.00 <0.005
Blood transfusion
 No 1033 969 (94) 64 (6) R -  
 Yes 140 112 (73) 28 (20) 3.78 2.32–6.14 <0.005
Duration of post-op stay
 1–7 days 663 634 (96) 29 (4) R - -
  > 7–14 days 424 383 (90) 41 (10) 2.34 1.43–3.82 0.001
  > 14 days 86 64 (74) 22 (26) 7.51 4.07–13.84 <0.005