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Table 1 Descriptive data, VRE cases and antibiotic use of the 61 wards considered in the analysis in total and by type of ward

From: The effect of antibiotic use on prevalence of nosocomial vancomycin-resistant enterococci- an ecologic study

Characteristic Type of hospital ward
Baseline characteristics All (n = 61)
Median (IQR)
Surgical (n = 20)
N (%)/median (IQR)
Medical (n = 18)
N (%)/median (IQR)
Intensive Care Unit (n = 14)
N (%)/median (IQR)
Hemato-oncological (n = 9)
N (%)/median (IQR)
 Patients, N = 204,054 3260 (1886–4478) 4180 (2642–5002) 3849 (3486–4909) 1483 (1252–1899) 2031 (1576–2268)
 Patient-days, N = 948,380 14,773 (10,642–19,154) 16,488 (13,488–19,819) 17,912 (15,018–20,758) 8949 (6961–10,642) 13,722 (10,849–14,430)
 Average length of stay, d 4.7 (3.9–5.8) 4.4 (3.7–5.0) 4.3 (3.7–5.1) 5.6 (5.1–7.0) 6.4 (4.8–8.2)
 Beds, N = 1604 27 (18–32) 32 (30–33) 31.5 (26–36) 13 (10–16) 21 (18–21)
 Bed occupancy rate (bed-days/patient-days*100) 81.1 (77.4–92.6) 77.2 (67.0–81.5) 79.1 (78.0–82.4) 94.9 (94.0–97.2) 89.5 (81.1–93.1)
VRE rates
 VRE cases (alla), N = 1430 12 (5–24) 5.5 (4.5–12.5) 7 (3–15) 20 (13–70) 48 (33–69)
 Screening cases, N = 939 (65.7%) 4 (2–12) 3.5 (1.5–5) 3.5 (2–4) 9 (0–26) 42 (31–63)
 Clinical cases, N = 491 (34.3%) 4 (2–10) 4 (1.5–6.5) 3 (1–8) 12.5 (8–23) 3 (2–6)
 VRE cases (nosocomial), N = 409 (28.6%) 3 (1–7) 2 (1–4) 1 (0–4) 11.5 (5–21) 5 (3–8)
 VRE incidence (nosocomial VRE/100 patients) 0.11 (0.03–0.32) 0.05 (0.02–0.14) 0.03 (0–0.11) 0.68 (0.32–1.22) 0.29 (0.14–0.53)
 VRE incidence density (nosocomial VRE/ 1000 patient-days) 0.24 (0.07–0.54) 0.11 (0.06–0.27) 0.07 (0–0.22) 1.17 (0.71–1.75) 0.35 (0.24–0.54)
Systemic antibiotic use (ATC-code) in DDD/100 patient-days
 All antibacterials for systemic use (J01) 76.8 (61.6–131.9) 72.8 (58.1–83.6) 64.1 (39.2–72.8) 163.2 (144.1–200.7) 115.0 (65.4–123.8)
 - Beta-lactam antibacterials, penicillins (J01C) 19.5 (13.8–34.4) 15.6 (12.1–38.7) 17.0 (11.5–28.6) 34.1 (30.1–46.2) 17.6 (16.1–20.4)
 - Combinations of penicillins, incl. Beta-lactamase inhibitors (J01CR) 14.2 (10.6–26.8) 12.2 (9.5–34.3) 10.7 (8.4–16.4) 21.4 (15.9–31.0) 15.2 (13.7–18.3)
 - Ampicillin and enzyme inhibitor (J01CR01) 5.3 (2.5–16.5) 5.7 (2.8–25.4) 3.8 (2.4–9.7) 11.2 (6.5–17.9) 2.3 (1.0–3.8)
 - Piperacillin and enzyme inhibitor (J01CR05) 6.0 (2.6–9.2) 2.7 (1.6–4.1) 3.1 (2.0–5.8) 10.2 (7.2–12.9) 10.4 (7.4–11.5)
 - Other beta-lactam antibacterials (J01D) 21.6 (16.9–37.5) 18.6 (14.2–29.2) 18.5 (10.3–22.8) 57.5 (45.7–68.5) 20.5 (18.2–34.5)
 - Second-generation cephalosporins (J01 DC) 4 (2.6–11.7) 9.0 (3.4–20.0) 3.3 (1.9–8.2) 4.3 (2.7–17.1) 2.8 (2.1–3.5)
 - Third-generation cephalosporins (J01DD) 3.9 (2.2–6.7) 2.4 (1.2–3.4) 3.1 (2.0–6.4) 9.0 (6.6–12.6) 4.3 (3.5–6.3)
 - Ceftriaxone (J01DD04) 2.6 (1.2–4.7) 1.6 (0.7–2.8) 2.8 (1.5–5.6) 4.7 (2.8–5.8) 1.6 (0.9–2.8)
 - Carbapenems (J01DH) 8.4 (2.3–19.0) 4.6 (1.0–7.5) 3.2 (1.5–8.4) 42.3 (22.5–49.4) 11.8 (10.7–25.7)
 - Meropenem (J01DH02) 7.8 (2.2–16.8) 3.3 (0.8–6.8) 2.5 (1.5–7.8) 40.3 (22.1–45.0) 11.5 (10.4–25.4)
 - Sulfonamides and Trimethoprim (J01E) 2.7 (1.4–5.0) 2.7 (1.4–3.3) 1.1 (0.6–2.0) 4.3 (3.1–7.1) 13.5 (2.7–15.8)
 - Makrolides, lincosamides and streptogramins (J01F) 7.3 (4.5–9.4) 6.4 (3.4–8.4) 6.2 (4.2–7.8) 8.8 (6.4–10.5) 8.0 (7.0–10.4)
 - Aminoglycosides (J01G) 0.4 (0.2–1.3) 0.2 (0.1–0.4) 0.2 (0.1–0.6) 3.5 (1.4–7.9) 0.3 (0.2–0.4)
 - Quinolones (J01M) 11.2 (6.8–20.7) 8.3 (6.1–16.0) 7.4 (3.7–12.4) 23.3 (17.9–27.3) 13.5 (10.2–43.6)
 - Ciprofloxacin (J01MA02) 10.5 (6.0–19.0) 8.0 (5.7–14.1) 6.9 (3.1–11.0) 21.6 (17.4–25.2) 11.1 (9.2–41.9)
 - Other antibacterials (J01X) 7.5 (3.5–12.9) 6.1 (3.2–9.3) 3.7 (1.7–6.3) 29.2 (20.8–36.7) 8.8 (5.1–11.0)
 - Glycopeptide antibacterials (J01XA) 3.0 (1.5–8.7) 1.8 (1.4–3.1) 1.7 (0.8–2.2) 12.8 (8.7–19.0) 5.6 (3.7–9.4)
 - Vancomycin (J01XA01) 2.6 (1.5–6.7) 1.8 (1.4–3.1) 1.6 (0.8–2.2) 12.4 (8.7–16.6) 2.8 (2.6–4.0)
  1. IQR, interquartile range; VRE, vancomycin-resistant enterococci; ATC, Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical classification system
  2. anosocomial and community acquired VRE
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