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Table 2 Incidence of systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) and healthcare associated infections (HAIs)

From: Alcohol-based hand rub and incidence of healthcare associated infections in a rural regional referral and teaching hospital in Uganda (‘WardGel’ study)

  All n (%) (N = 3335) Baseline n (%) (N = 1848) Intervention n (%) (N = 1487) Relative risk (RR) or incidence rate ratio (IRR) (95% CI, p value)
SIRS incidence since hospital day 3 and/or HAIs diagnosed 182 (5.5) 95 (5.1) 87 (5.9) 1.14 (0.86-1.51, 0.37)
 OBGYN 99 (6.2) 27 (3.2) 72 (9.7) 3.07 (2.00-4.73, <0.01)
 Pediatrics 58 (4.3) 51 (6.3) 7 (1.3) 0.21 (0.10-0.47, <0.01)
 Surgery 25 (6.2) 17 (9.4) 8 (3.6) 0.38 (0.17-0.86, 0.01)
SIRS criteria met 178 (5.4) 91 (5.0) 87 (5.8) 1.18 (0.89-1.57, 0.25)
Diagnoses of HAIs made 20 (0.6) 13 (0.7) 7 (0.5) 0.67 (0.27-1.67, 0.39)
 Surgical site infectiona 12 (0.4) 6 (0.3) 6 (0.4) 1.24 (0.40-3.84, 0.71)
 Pneumoniaa 8 (0.2) 8 (0.4) 0 (0.0) 0 (, 0.01)
 Gastroenteritisa 1 (0.03) 1 (0.05) 0 (0.0) 0 (, 0.55)
 Episiotomy infectiona 1 (0.03) 1 (0.05) 0 (0.0) 0 (, 0.55)
Incidence rate of SIRS/HAI (cases/1000 patient-days) 18.0 17.4 18.6 1.07 (0.79–1.44, 0.66)
 OBGYN 25.6 13.4 40.1 2.99 (1.92–4.66, <0.01)
 Pediatrics 15.0 21.7 4.6 0.21 (0.10–0.47, <0.01)
 Surgery 10.2 15.8 6.2 0.39 (0.16–0.92, 0.02)
SIRS/HAI incidence per 100 surgeries (n = 873) 11.5 7.5 16.5 2.19 (1.49-3.21, <0.01)
 OBGYN (n = 639) 13.5 7.2 22.5 3.14 (2.05-4.82, <0.01)
 Surgery (n = 234) 6.0 8.8 3.3 0.38 (0.12-1.18, 0.10)
SIRS incidence per 100 urinary catheter use (n = 573) 14.8 7.7 24.0 3.10 (2.00-4.80, <0.01)
 OBGYN (n = 545) 14.9 7.6 24.1 3.18 (2.02-5.00, <0.01)
 Surgery (n = 28) 14.3 10.5 22.2 2.11 (0.35-12.67, 0.30)
SIRS/pneumonia incidence per 100 mechanical ventilation (n = 210)b 15.7 11.5 18.2 1.58 (0.77-3.22, 0.20)
 OBGYN (n = 112) 24.1 10.4 34.4 3.30 (1.35-8.08, <0.01)
 Surgery (n = 97) 5.2 10.3 2.9 0.28 (0.05-1.61, 0.16)
  1. a Multiple diagnoses are possible for each individual
  2. b Includes one case each who had mechanical ventilation without surgery at pediatric and OGBYN departments