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Table 1 Characteristics of cases with nosocomial VRE infection and controls with nosocomial VSE infection

From: Economic burden of nosocomial infections caused by vancomycin-resistant enterococci

Characteristics VRE infection (n = 42) VSE infection (n = 42) p-value ª
Clinical criteria
 Age (years)b 50 (32–65) 58 (43–67) 0.190
 Male 23 (54.8%) 23 (54.8%) 1.000
 No. of patients on intensive care unit at time of onset of infectionb 39 (92.9%) 39 (92.9%) 1.000
 Mechanical ventilation (h) 169 (5–471) 25 (3–302) 0.294
 Charlson comorbidity indexb 3 (1–4) 3 (1–4) 0.906
  Cardiac insufficiency 4 (9.5%) 6 (14.3%) 0.738
  Peripheral vascular disease 1 (2.4%) 0 (0%) 1.000
  Cerebrovascular disease 4 (9.5%) 0 (0%) 0.116
  Chronic pulmonary disease 1 (2.4%) 3 (7.1%) 0.616
  Mild liver disease 10 (23.8%) 8 (19%) 0.791
  Hemi- or paraplegia 2 (4.8%) 1 (2.4%) 1.000
  Kidney disease 9 (21.4%) 7 (16.7%) 0.782
  Malignant tumour 12 (28.6%) 12 (28.6%) 1.000
  Severe liver disease 3 (7.1%) 0 (0%) 0.241
  Metastasized malignant tumour 1 (2.4%) 1 (2.4%) 1.000
  Myocardial infarction 0 (0%) 2 (4.8%) 0.494
Outcome
 LOS (days) after diagnosis of infection 33 (13–63) 27 (14–35) 0.122
 LOS (days) before diagnosis of infection 16 (10–26) 15 (9–25) 0.730
 Overall LOS (days) in the hospital 54 (35–80) 45 (27–63) 0.139
 Death 14 (33.3%) 11 (26.2%) 0.634
  1. LOS, length of stay; Values are numbers (%) or medians (interquartile range)
  2. ªWilcoxon rank sum test for continuous variables and Fisher’s exact test for binary variables
  3. bAdditional matching criteria were admission and discharge within the same year, and “time at risk” defined as a length of stay at least as long as that of cases before the onset of VRE infection