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Table 2 Bivariate factors associated with MDR-TB and RR-TB

From: Drug resistant tuberculosis in Saudi Arabia: an analysis of surveillance data 2014–2015

   MDR-TB
93(4.4%)
     RR-TB
123(5.9%)
    
      95% CI for OR     95% CI for OR
Characteristics Levels Mean Difference SE Difference P OR Lower Upper Mean Difference SE Difference P OR Lower Upper
Age/year   3.8 1.4 0.006a .983 .968 .998 2.547 1.5 .084 .989 .977 1.001
       95% CI for OR      95% CI for OR
   n % P OR Lower Upper n % P OR Lower Upper
Gender Male 60 4.1 0.332 1.240 .803 1.916 84 5.8 0.848 1.039 .702 1.537
Female 33 5.1      39 6   1   
Occupation Driver 8 5.4 0.984 1.133 .523 2.455 10 6.8 0.918 1.060 .530 2.119
Housemaid 10 4.1   .834 .414 1.680 12 4.9   .744 .394 1.407
Housewife 6 3.5   .712 .299 1.695 7 4.1   .616 .277 1.371
Handcraft 2 4.2   .856 .201 3.639 3 6.3   .968 .292 3.205
Student 6 4.1   .832 .349 1.986 7 4.7   .721 .323 1.608
Unemployed 11 3.9   .796 .406 1.561 17 6   .928 .532 1.617
Prisoner 5 4.1   .834 .325 2.144 7 5.7   .876 .391 1.962
Other 45 4.8   1    60 6.4   1   
Nationality Saudi 34 3.9 0.286 1.264 .821 1.946 51 5.8 0.920 1.019 .704 1.475
Non-Saudi 59 4.8   1    72 5.9   1   
Region West 43 5.4 0.014a .937 .585 1.500 54 6.8 0.004a .892 .587 1.356
East 5 1.5   .245 .094 .635 6 1.8   .220 .093 .524
South 9 3.1   .525 .247 1.116 17 5.9   .764 .427 1.367
North 4 3.5   .591 .205 1.705 4 3.5   .442 .155 1.258
  Center 32 5.7   1    42 7.5   1   
TB site Pulmonary 87 4.6 0.320 1.527 .659 3.539 113 5.9 0.622 1.182 .608 2.296
EPTB 6 3   1    10 5.1   1   
Diabetes Yes 9 3.4 0.367 1.378 .685 2.775 14 5.2 0.645 1.144 .646 2.027
No 84 4.6   1    109 6   1   
HIV Yes 92 4.5 1.000 2.064 .281 15.148 121 5.9 0.720 1.347 .322 5.625
  No 1 2.2   1    2 4.4   1   
Lung diseases Yes 2 3.7 1.000 .825 .198 3.442 4 7.4 0.555 1.294 .460 3.644
No 91 4.5   1    119 5.8   1   
Chronic renal failure Yes 2 10.5 0.205 2.570 .585 11.292 4 21.1 0.022a 4.392 1.435 13.439
No 91 4.4   1    119 5.7   1   
Immunosuppressive Yes 1 7.7 0.446 1.805 .232 14.032 2 15.4 0.175 2.951 .647 13.463
No 92 4.4   1    121 5.8   1   
Previous TB treatment Yes 36 25.2 0.001a 11.203 7.069 17.755 41 28.7 0.001a 9.181 6.005 14.038
No 57 2.9   1    82 4.2   1   
  1. aSignificant at α = 0.05; OR odds ratio, TB Tuberculosis, HIV human immunodeficiency virus, MDR-TB multi-drug-resistant tuberculosis, RR-TB rifampicin-resistant tuberculosis, EPTB extra-pulmonary tuberculosis, SE (standard error)