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Table 1 Overview of all collected variables, the method used, outcome variables that are visualized in the risk profile and improvement plot, and breakpoints for the risk classification

From: The infection risk scan (IRIS): standardization and transparency in infection control and antimicrobial use

      Risk classification
variables Hospital NH^ method Outcome variable Low Intermediate High
Risk profile  
 Severity of underlying diseases, according to the McCabe score X   Prevalence survey
(file research & interview)
The percentage per category is presented in the risk profile N.A.&
 Independency scale according to Katz-score   X Prevalence survey
(file research & interview)
The percentage per category is presented in the risk profile N.A. &
 indwelling medical devices, including venflon not in use X   Prevalence survey
(file research & interview)
Percentage
(n=total number inclusions)
≤ 15 >15 and ≤50 > 50
  X ≤ 5 >5 and ≤10 > 10
 Antibiotic use X   Prevalence survey
(file research & interview)
Percentage
(n=total number inclusions)
≤ 15 >15 and ≤50 > 50
  X ≤ 5 >5 and ≤10 > 10
 Rectal carriage of ESBL-Eǂ and CPEǂǂ X X Prevalence survey (culture of faeces or perianal swab) Percentage
(n=total number patients of whom faeces was cultured)
≤ 7 >7 and ≤11 > 11
Improvement plot        
 Inappropriate use of medical devices X X Prevalence survey
(file research & interview)
Percentage (n=total number of patients with medical devices in use) ≤ 15 >15 and ≤25 >25
 Inappropriate use of antibiotics X X Prevalence survey (file research & interview) Percentage (n=total number of patients administered one or more antibiotics) ≤ 15 >15 and ≤25 >25
 Transmission of ESBL-E and CPE X X Prevalence survey (molecular typing of ESBL-E and CPE) Transmission = 2 or more identical ESBL-E and CPE with an epidemiological link No transmission No transmission Transmission
 Hand hygiene non-compliance X   Direct observations of hand hygiene moments per unit % non-compliance overall
(n>200 moments)
≤ 40 >40 and ≤60 >60
 Environmental contamination X X ATP detection on pre-defined surfaces/objects per ward.
Per tested surface/object, RLU is converted to a score (1, 2, 3 or 4)
Total score per ward/setting
(in case of multiple wards within 1 setting, breakpoints will be adjusted as needed)
≤ 4
≤ 3
>4 and ≤12
>3 and ≤9
>12 ZH
>9 VH
 Shortcomings in infection control preconditions X X 10 preconditions are observed per ward Score from 1 to 10 ≤ 1 >1 and ≤3 >3
 Personal hygiene of healthcare workers X X 20 nurses and other healthcare employees, per ward, were checked for compliance with the dress code. Score from 1 to 20 (in case of less observations, breakpoints will be adjusted as needed) ≤ 1 >1 and ≤4 >4
  1. ^ NH = Nursing Home;
  2. &N.A.=not applicable; ǂ ESBL-E = Extended Spectrum Beta-Lactamase producing Enterobacteriaceae
  3. ǂǂCPE-E = Carbapenemase producing Enterobacteriaceae