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Table 1 Nosocomial outbreaks caused by health care workers involving gram negative bacteria

From: Effectiveness of healthcare worker screening in hospital outbreaks with gram-negative pathogens: a systematic review

Autor, year, reference Pathogen Department # Patients Microbiologically proven Pathogen identified by rectal swabs Location at personnel (colonisation and/or infection)
Falcao et al. 1972 [32] Pseudomonas aeruginosa Nursery 9 yes yes • faeces
Passaro et al.1997 [41] Serratia marcescens Surgery 7 yes no • hands (artificial nails)
Moolenaar et al. 2000 [36] Pseudomonas aeruginosa NICU 46 yes no • hands (fingernails)
McNeil et al. 2001 [34] Pseudomonas aeruginosa Surgery 16 yes no • hands (onychomycosis and fingernails)
Taneja et al., 2003 [20] Escherichia coli (ETEC) NICU 16 yes yes • hands
• faeces
Zawacki et al. 2004 [31] Pseudomonas aeruginosa NICU 5 yes no • hands
• ear
Gupta et al. 2004 [25] Klebsiella pneumoniae (ESBL) NICU 19 yes no • hands (artificial nails)
Boszczowski et al. 2005 [27] Klebsiella pneumoniae (ESBL) NICU 4 yes no • hands (onychomykosis)
Jepson et al. 2006 [39] Serratia marcescens Surgery 6 yes no • hands (ring)
Cassettari et al. 2009 [29] Klebsiella pneumoniae (ESBL) Neonatal Intermediate Care Unit 36 yes no • hands (onychomycotic lesions)
  1. ETEC enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli, ESBL extended spectrum beta-lactamase, NICU neonatal intensive care unit