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Table 3 Excess Healthcare system Cost Estimates of Antimicrobial Resistance

From: Estimating the burden of antimicrobial resistance: a systematic literature review

Study Exposure Group Control Group Country Method Excess Cost Estimate (2013 USD)
Cost per case
 [109] CRAB in Columbia Carbapenem susceptible A. baumannii Columbia Regression 4,583a
 [124] ESBL+ E. coli & Klebsiella species UTI ESBL- E. coli & Klebsiella species UTI USA Significance Tests 3,237a
 [125] ESBL+ E.coli BSI ESBL- E.coli BSI Germany Matching -2081
 [49] ESBL+ Enterobacteriaceae BSI ESBL- Enterobacteriaceae BSI Switzerland Multistate model 10,154
 [45] ESBL+ UTI ESBL- UTI Spain Matching & Regression 3146†
 [126] ESBL+ and/or beta-lactamases resistant UTI Susceptible UTI Turkey Significance Tests 90a
 [126] Ciprofloxacin resistant UTI Ciprofloxacin susceptible UTI Turkey Significance Tests 114a
 [127] MDR A. baumannii BSI Susceptible A. baumannii BSI Turkey Significance Tests 15,365
 [58] MRSA Non-exposure inpatients Germany Stepwise Calculations 11,878
 [53] MRSA breast abscess MSSA breast abscess USA Matching 515
 [128] MRSA BSI Non-exposure BSI South Korea Stepwise Calculations 5216
 [129] MRSA BSI (survivors) Non-nosocomial-infected patients South Korea Matching 11,627
 [129] MRSA BSI (non-survivors) Non-nosocomial-infected patients South Korea Matching 15,254
 [51] MRSA infections Non-exposure inpatients USA Matching 28,553a
 [130] MRSA colonisation & infection Non-exposure inpatients USA Matching 12,167a
 [131] Resistant BSI Susceptible BSI India Significance Tests 912a
 [132] Carbapenem-resistant device associated healthcare acquired infections ICU patients Non-“device associated healthcare acquired infections” ICU patients Greece Significance Tests 3,884a
 [133] VRE colonisation & infections Non-exposure inpatients Canada Matching & Regression 18,631a
 [76] VRE BSI VSE BSI Australia Matching & Regression 30,093a
 [134] VRE BSI in allo-HSCT recipients Non-exposure in allo-HSCT recipients USA Significance Tests 6104
 [135] MDR TB Non-MDR TB Germany Stepwise Calculations 86,321
 [136] MDR TB Non-MDR TB South Africa Stepwise Calculations 6728
 [137] MDR TB Non-MDR TB Latvia Regression 33291a
 [138] XDR and pre-XDR TB Rifampicin-mono-resistant or MDR TB South Africa Stepwise Calculations 15,567
 [136] XDR TB Non-“XDR or MDR” TB South Africa Stepwise Calculations 26,989
 [139] VRE BSI in leukaemia patients Non-exposure leukaemia patients USA Matching 88150a
Per-patient per-day
 [50] MRSA in Switzerland Non-exposure inpatients Switzerland Multistate model 867
 [140] Resistant Gram-negative Bacilli infection Susceptible Gram-negative Bacilli infection Singapore Matching 812
Annual cost per stated country or stated region
 [57] MRSA No-MRSA USA Multistate model 1,382,733,079
 [141] Resistant Streptococcus pneumonia Susceptible Streptococcus pneumonia USA Multistate model 91,773,500
 [142] Artemisinin resistant malaria No-“Artemisinin resistant malaria” High endemicity region Multistate model 32,000,000
  1. aStatistically significant where p-value is less than 0.05