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Table 4 Analysis of risk factors associated with carbapenem non-susceptibility of K. pneumoniae isolates

From: Carbapenem non-susceptibility of Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates in hospitals from 2011 to 2016, data from the German Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance (ARS)

  Univariable analysis of risk factors associated with carbapenem non-susceptibility Multivariable analysis of risk factors associated with carbapenem non-susceptibility
OR (95% CI)a p-valueb OR (95% CI)c p-valueb
Year
 2011 1 1
 2012 1.00 (0.64, 1.57) 0.994 0.99 (0.63, 1.56) 0.964
 2013 1.29 (0.84, 1.99) 0.239 1.30 (0.85, 2.01) 0.229
 2014 1.78 (1.16, 2.75) 0.009 1.84 (1.19, 2.84) 0.006
 2015 1.87 (1.23, 2.86) 0.004 1.99 (1.29, 3.05) 0.002
 2016 2.00 (1.32, 3.05) 0.001 2.10 (1.38, 3.22) 0.001
Quarter
 Jan - Mar 1 1
 Apr - Jun 1.14 (0.93, 1.40) 0.217 1.13 (0.92, 1.39) 0.248
 Jul - Sept 1.07 (0.87, 1.31) 0.515 1.06 (0.87, 1.30) 0.553
 Oct - Dec 1.05 (0.86, 1.30) 0.618 1.07 (0.87, 1.31) 0.542
Age (years)
  < 1 0.49 (0.21, 1.11) 0.089 0.26 (0.11, 0.61) 0.002
 1–19 2.28 (1.45, 3.58) < 0.001 1.67 (1.06, 2.66) 0.029
 20–39 2.87 (2.17, 3.79) < 0.001 2.38 (1.78, 3.18) < 0.001
 40–49 1.88 (1.33, 2.64) < 0.001 1.49 (1.05, 2.10) 0.025
 50–59 2.10 (1.63, 2.70) < 0.001 1.62 (1.26, 2.10) < 0.001
 60–69 1.73 (1.37, 2.18) < 0.001 1.35 (1.06, 1.71) 0.013
 70–79 1.57 (1.28, 1.94) < 0.001 1.33 (1.08, 1.65) 0.007
 80+ 1 1
Sex
 Male 1.81 (1.57, 2.10) < 0.001 1.57 (1.35, 1.83) < 0.001
 Female 1 1
Hospital Care Level
 Secondary Care 1 1
 Tertiary Care 3.52 (2.02, 6.11) < 0.001 2.68 (1.55, 4.66) < 0.001
 Specialist Care 2.16 (1.39, 3.37) 0.001 2.44 (1.57, 3.78) < 0.001
 Prevention and Rehabilitation Care 1.92 (0.93, 3.98) 0.078 2.22 (1.09, 4.52) 0.028
 Other 0.91 (0.26, 3.21) 0.886 1.03 (0.29, 3.61) 0.966
Type of care
 Intensive care unit 2.58 (2.20, 3.03) < 0.001 2.37 (1.98, 2.84) < 0.001
 Normal hospital ward 1 1
 Other 1.96 (1.26, 3.06) 0.003 1.69 (1.08, 2.64) 0.022
Clinical specialty
 Surgery and related 1.50 (1.24, 1.82) < 0.001 1.15 (0.94, 1.40) 0.176
 Internal medicine 1 1
 Other 1.50 (1.26, 1.78) < 0.001 0.98 (0.81, 1.18) 0.821
Sample type
 Swabs 2.35 (1.94, 2.85) < 0.001 1.87 (1.53, 2.29) < 0.001
 Blood culture 1.45 (1.01, 2.06) 0.043 1.08 (0.76, 1.56) 0.661
 Puncture 1.46 (0.90, 2.37) 0.126 1.08 (0.66, 1.76) 0.769
 Urine 1 1
 Wound 1.90 (1.49, 2.41) < 0.001 1.45 (1.13, 1.87) 0.003
 Respiratory 2.07 (1.69, 2.53) < 0.001 1.21 (0.97, 1.51) 0.093
 Other 3.01 (1.98, 4.58) < 0.001 2.11 (1.37, 3.23) < 0.001
Region
 Northwest 1 1
 West 1.70 (0.93, 3.14) 0.087 1.73 (0.98, 3.06) 0.057
 Southwest 1.03 (0.55, 1.93) 0.922 1.01 (0.55, 1.84) 0.983
 Southeast 1.10 (0.55, 2.20) 0.783 0.89 (0.46, 1.71) 0.721
 Northeast 1.57 (0.74, 3.33) 0.241 1.43 (0.69, 2.98) 0.336
County Type
 Rural 1 1
 City 1.34 (0.93, 1.92) 0.119 1.17 (0.74, 1.84) 0.508
Counties by Social Deprivation Index
 1 (lowest deprivation) 1 1
 2 1.29 (0.68, 2.44) 0.444 1.29 (0.70, 2.36) 0.412
 3 0.96 (0.51, 1.82) 0.897 0.88 (0.47, 1.64) 0.687
 4 0.84 (0.44, 1.61) 0.609 0.79 (0.42, 1.47) 0.452
 5 (highest deprivation) 0.99 (0.53, 1.84) 0.971 0.91 (0.49, 1.69) 0.758
Hospital Beds per 10.000 inhabitants
 8.2–57.2 1 1
 57.3–71.5 0.96 (0.59, 1.56) 0.870 0.87 (0.53, 1.42) 0.577
 71.6–90.9 0.82 (0.51, 1.33) 0.431 0.62 (0.36, 1.08) 0.093
 91.0–219.0 1.49 (0.94, 2.36) 0.087 1.01 (0.58, 1.77) 0.969
  1. Isolates from patients with missing values on the variables were not included in the analysis
  2. CI confidence interval, OR odds ratio
  3. aHierarchical Logistic Regression model accounting for clustering within counties and hospitals
  4. bWald test
  5. cHierarchical Logistic Regression model accounting for clustering within counties and hospitals adjusting for year, quarter age, sex, hospital care level, type of care, clinical specialty, sample type, region, county type, social deprivation index, and hospital beds per 10,000 inhabitants