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Table 1 Univariate analysis of epidemiologic parameters, length of stay, and direct hospital costs of cases with blood stream infection caused by enterococcus spp. stratified by vancomycin resistance

From: The importance of adjusting for enterococcus species when assessing the burden of vancomycin resistance: a cohort study including over 1000 cases of enterococcal bloodstream infections

Parameter (A) VS-E. faecium (n = 493) (B) VS-E. faecalis (n = 563) P-Value for A) vs. B) (C) VR-E. faecium (n = 103) P-Value for C) vs. A)
P-Value OR (CI 95) P-Value OR (CI 95)
In-hospital mortality 39.6% (195) 24.4% (132) 0.000 2.137 (1.638-2.787) 50.5% (52) 0.041 1.558 (1.017–2.387)
Male 58.6% (289) 63.1% (355) 0.141 0.830 (0.648-1.063) 66.0% (68) 0.163 1.371 (0.879–2.141)
Age in years, median (IQR) 67 (54–75) 64 (53–73) 0.059 n.a. 61 (52–70) 0.107  
Cardiac disease 28.2% (139) 29.0% (163) 0.786 0.964 (0.737-1.259) 26.2% (27) 0.683 0.905 (0.559-1.464)
Vascular disease 22.1% (109) 22.4% (126) 0.916 0.984 (0.736-1.317) 22.3% (23) 0.961 1.013 (0.608-1.687)
Pulmonary disease 20.1% (99) 23.1% (130) 0.236 0.837 (0.623-1.124) 21.4% (22) 0.769 1.081 (0.643-1.818)
Rheumatic disease 3.0% (15) 3.6% (20) 0.644 0.852 (0.431-1.683) 2.9% (3) 0.944 0.956 (0.272-3.364)
Gastrointestinal disease 5.5% (27) 3.7% (21) 0.174 1.495 (0.834-2.680) 5.8% (6) 0.888 1.068 (0.429-2.656)
Diabetes 22.9% (113) 32.0% (180) 0.001 0,633 (0,481-0,833) 19.4% (20) 0.437 0,810 (0.476-1.379)
Renal disease 59.0% (291) 52.8% (297) 0.041 1.290 (1.011-1.647) 70.9% (73) 0.025 1.689 (1.065-2.679)
Liver disease 29.6% (146) 19.9% (112) 0.000 1.694 (1.276-2.249) 42.7% (44) 0.009 1.772 (1.146-2,74)
Cancer/ immunological disease 48.1% (237) 36.1% (203) 0.000 1.642 (1.283-2.101) 53.4% (55) 0.325 1.238 (0.809-1.894)
Neurological disease 7.3% (36) 13.0% (73) 0.003 0,529 (0,348-0,804) 8.7% (9) 0.616 1.215 (0.566-2.608)
Charlson comorbidity index, median (IQR) 7 (4–9) 7 (4–9) 0.907 n.a. 7 (5–9) 0.377 n.a.
Length of stay as Median (IQR)
 LOS total (days) 42 (23–78) 32 (16–61) 0.000 n.a. 54 (36–85) 0.010 n.a.
 LOS before BSI (days) 19 (9–34) 10 (2–25) 0.000 n.a. 27 (15–39) 0.003 n.a.
 LOS after BSI (days) 18 (8–41) 16 (8–33) 0.308 n.a. 23 (8–45) 0.183 n.a.
 LOS normal ward 15 (1–36) 11 (1–25) 0.010 n.a. 17 (0–44) 0.368 n.a.
 LOS ICU 18 (1–49) 10 (1–40) 0.016 n.a. 24 (5–57) 0.050 n.a.
Hospital costs as median (IQR)
 Total hospital costs 51,365 (22,535-119,789) 31,122 (11,829-74,344) 0.000 n.a. 80,465 (47,887–157,447) 0.000 n.a.
 Daily costs 1,237 (729–1,812) 1,014 (614–1,466) 0.000 n.a. 1,484 (1,095–2,186) 0.000 n.a.
 Medical staff 7,600 (3169-16,468) 5,344 (1841-12,213) 0.000 n.a. 10,390 (6,364–20,983) 0.002 n.a.
 Nursing staff 11,499 (4,476-26,237) 7,141 (2,610-21,591) 0.000 n.a. 16,661 (8,029–32,905) 0.003 n.a.
 Assistant medical technicians 2,630 (1,028-5694) 1,906 (646–4,325) 0.000 n.a. 3,665 (1,397–6,795) 0.082 n.a.
 Pharmacy 6,924 (2,200-20,922) 2,742 (636–7,865) 0.000 n.a. 17,145 (8,087–36,779) 0.000 n.a.
 Expenses for implants/transplants 0 (0–412) 0 (0–170) 0.005 n.a. 20 (0–605) 0.767 n.a.
 Medical supply 6,858 (2,820-15,057) 3,926 (− 1,338-9,782) 0.000 n.a. 9,878 (5,104–18,957) 0.002 n.a.
 Medical infrastructure 1,893 (939–4,128) 1,473 (547–3,271) 0.000 n.a. 2,629 (1,611–5,219) 0.001 n.a.
 Non-medical infrastructure 8,975 (4,215-18,206) 6,176 (2,576-14,049) 0.000 n.a. 12,244 (6,763–20,002) 0.003 n.a.
  1. Categorical variables displayed as percentage and number; continuous variable displayed as median and interquartile range. *P-value, categorical variables tested with Chi-square test, continuous variable tested with Wilcoxon rank sum test. BSI = blood stream infection, IQR = interquartile range, OR = odds ratio, CI95 = 95% confidence interval. VRE = vancomycin-resistant enterococcus, VSE = vancomycin-susceptible enterococcus. N.a. = not applicable
  2. Bold entries represent statistically significant factors