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Table 2 Clinical Characteristics and univariate logistics analysis of risk factors for 30-day mortality of patients diagnosed with CoNS bacteraemia

From: The species distribution, antimicrobial resistance and risk factors for poor outcome of coagulase-negative staphylococci bacteraemia in China

  Total
n = 157
Survival
n = 137
Non-survival
n = 20
OR 95% CI p-value
Age 64.0 (48.0–80.0) 62.0 (48.0–80.0) 72.0 (62.8–80.2) 1.0 1.0–1.0 0.112
 ≥60 years 92 (58.6%) 76 (55.5%) 16 (80.0%) 3.2 1.0–10.1 0.046*
 < 60 years 65 (41.4%) 61 (44.5%) 4 (20.0%)    
Gender
 female 49 (31.2%) 42 (30.7%) 7 (35%) 1.2 0.5–3.3 0.696
 male 108 (68.8%) 95 (69.3%) 13 (65.0%)    
Residence in ICU 66 (42.0%) 52 (38.0%) 14 (70.0%) 3.8 1.4–10.5 0.010*
APACHE II score 12.0 (6.0–20.0) 11.0 (1.0–36.0) 20.0 (6.0–32.0) 1.1 1.0–1.2 0.002*
qSOFA score
 2 and 3 36 (22.9%) 26 (19.0%) 10 (50.0%) 4.3 1.6–11.3 0.004*
 0 and 1 121 (77.1%) 111 (81.0%) 10 (50.0%)    
Prior hospital stay length 15.0 (4.0–35.0) 13.0 (4.0–31.0) 30.5 (5.8–46.2) 2.8 1.0–1.0 0.707
 ≥28 days 53 (33.8%) 42 (31%) 11 (55%) 2.8 1.1–7.2 0.036*
 < 28 days 104 (66.2%) 95 (69.3%) 9 (45.0%)    
Comorbidities
 Cardiovascular disease 95 (60.5%) 82 (59.9%) 13 (65.0%) 1.2 0.5–3.3 0.661
 Pneumonia 73 (46.5%) 59 (43.1%) 14 (70.0%) 3.1 1.1–8.5 0.030*
 Cerebrovascular disease 46 (29.3%) 42 (30.7%) 4 (20.0%) 0.6 0.2–1.8 0.333
 Diabetes mellitus 36 (22.9%) 32 (23.4%) 4 (20.0%) 0.8 0.3–2.6 0.739
 Chronic liver failure 29 (18.5%) 20 (14.6%) 9 (45.0%) 4.8 1.8–13.0 0.002*
 Chronic renal failure 27 (17.2%) 18 (13.1%) 9 (45.0%) 5.4 2.0–14.9 0.001*
 Solid tumor 28 (17.8%) 24 (17.5%) 4 (20.0%) 1.2 0.4–3.8 0.787
 Hematologic malignancy 11 (7.0%) 9 (6.6%) 2 (10.0%) 1.6 0.3–7.9 0.577
 Neutropenia 12 (7.6%) 11 (8.0%) 1 (5.0%) 0.6 0.1–4.9 0.637
Prior treatments
 Indwelling CVC 88 (56.1%) 74 (54.0%) 14 (70.0%) 2.0 0.7–5.5 0.184
 Indwelling urinary catheter 67 (42.7%) 57 (41.6%) 10 (50.0%) 1.4 0.5–3.6 0.480
 Invasive MV 38 (24.2%) 33 (24.1%) 5 (25.0%) 1.1 0.4–3.1 0.929
 Broad-spectrum antibiotics 31 (19.7%) 45 (32.8%) 6 (30.0%) 0.9 0.3–2.4 0.800
 Surgery 28 (17.8%) 26 (19.0%) 2 (10.0%) 0.5 0.1–2.2 0.337
 Renal replacement therapy 9 (5.7%) 7 (5.1%) 2 (10.0%) 2.1 0.4–10.7 0.389
 Chemotherapy 4 (2.5%) 3 (2.2%) 1 (5.0%) 2.4 0.2–23.8 0.469
Laboratory test results
 CRP (mg/dL) 3.9 (2.3–8.6) 3.9 (0.1–29.4) 3.9 (1.2–78.2) 1.0 1.0–1.1 0.175
 Leukocyte (×109/L) 8.2 (5.2–11.9) 8.2 (4.7–12.1) 8.3 (6.2–11.1) 1.0 0.9–1.1 0.706
 Neutrophils (×109/L) 6.5 (3.6–9.5) 6.6 (3.3–9.9) 6.3 (4.1–9.1) 1.0 0.9–1.1 0.643
 ALT (U/L) 24.6 (13.5–41.9) 24.4 (3.7–147.0) 30.2 (1.7–419.1) 1.0 1.0–1.0 0.024*
 SCr (μmol/L) 63.5 (51.3–83.6) 62.1 (22.4–1392.0) 69.0 (37.9–791.0) 1.0 1.0–1.0 0.690
Appropriate empirical antibiotic therapy 132 (84.1%) 117 (85.4%) 15 (75.0%) 0.5 0.2–1.6 0.242
 Vancomycin 40 (25.5%) 39 (28.5%) 1 (5.0%) 0.1 0.0–1.0 0.052
 Carbapenems 33 (21.0%) 27 (19.7%) 6 (30.0%) 1.7 0.6–5.0 0.296
 Linezolid 4 (2.5%) 4 0
  1. OR odds ratio, 95% CI confidence interval, CVC central venous catheter, MV mechanical ventilation, CRP c-reactive protein, ALT alanine aminotransferase, SCr serum creatinine, APACHE II acute physiology and chronic health evaluation (ii), qSOFA quick sepsis related organ failure assessment
  2. *Bold font means that the risk factor was statistically p < 0.05 in the univariate logistics analysis and was included in the multivariate logistics analysis