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Table 3 Univariate and multivariate analysis of the risk factors identified. All those with statistically significant Odds Ratios, at 95% confidence, are in bold

From: Antimicrobial susceptibility against metronidazole and carbapenem in clinical anaerobic isolates from Pakistan

  Metronidazole resistance as outcome (n = 189)
Univariate analysis Multivariate analysis
Clinical characteristics OR (95% CI) P Value OR(95% CI) P Value
Prolonged hospital stayb (≥ 7 days of hospital admission) 1.1 (0.5–2.5) 0.869 0.6 (0.2–1.7) 0.381
Age group (< 18 years as reference)   0.338   
18–60 years 2.6 (0.7–9.0) 0.144   
> 60 years 2.5 (0.6–10.7) 0.214   
Female (Male as reference) 0.5 (0.2–1.2) 0.128   
Organisms (Clostridium species as reference)   0.876   
Bacteroides fragilis 0.6 (0.06–5.1) 0.611   
Bacteroides other than fragilis 1.2 (0.5–3.0) 0.662   
Othersa 1.016 (0.3–3.1) 0.978   
Diabetes Mellitus 0.3 (0.06–1.3) 0.119   
Malignancy/transplant 5.6 (1.7–17.9) 0.003 6.3(1.7–23.3) 0.005
Dialysis 4.2(0.2–68.5) 0.315   
Bacteremia 2.3 (1.0–5.1) 0.041 2.1 (0.9–4.7) 0.089
Skin and soft tissue infection 0.6 (0.2–1.3) 0.181   
Head and neck infections 0.4 (0.09–2.0) 0.302   
Intraabdominal infections 1.1 (0.5–2.4) 0.739   
Respiratory tract infections 2.1 (0.4–11.9) 0.399   
Genitourinary infections 0.5 (0.1–2.4) 0.402   
Expired 2.5 (0.7–9.0) 0.161   
  1. a “Other” category includes Fusobacterium species, Cutibacterium species, Prevotella, Bifidobacterium, Eggerthella lenta
  2. bprimary exposure