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Table 2 Analysis of risk factors for 28-day Mortality in 491 patients with E. coli bloodstream infections

From: Risk factors and outcomes in non-transplant patients with extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli bacteremia: a retrospective study from 2013 to 2016

  Univariate analysis Multivariable analysis
Survivors (n = 420) Non- survivors (n = 71) P-values P-values OR 95% CI for OR
Lower Upper
Demographic
 Male, n (%) 223 (53.1) 39 (54.9) 0.774     
 Ages, mean ± SD 60.8 ± 16.4 60.0 ± 16.8 0.736     
Total hospital stay, days (median, IQR) 20 (11–34) 15 (7–28) 0.013     
Hospital stay before BSI, days (median, IQR) 3 (0–13) 7 (1–17) 0.028     
Preexisting medical conditions
 Hypertension 115 (27.4) 23 (32.4) 0.385     
 Diabetes 71 (16.9) 8 (11.4) 0.249     
 Lung disease 5 (1.2) 3 (4.2) 0.173     
 Cardiovascular diseases 10 (2.4) 1 (1.4) 0.937     
 Hepatobiliary disease 110 (26.2) 27 (38.0) 0.040 0.034 1.890 1.048 3.410
 Urinary system disease 34 (8.1) 6 (8.5) 0.919     
 Nervous system disease 13 (3.1) 2 (2.8) > 0.050     
 Malignant solid tumor 86 (20.5) 20 (28.2) 0.145     
 Hematological Disease 63 (15.0) 11 (15.5) 0.914     
Charlson comorbidity score b (median, IQR) 2 (0–2) 2 (1–3) 0.001     
Source of infections
 Central venous catheterization 25 (6.0) 0 (0) 0.069     
 Lung infection 82 (19.5) 26 (36.6) 0.001 0.071 1.781 0.951 3.336
 Abdominal infection 212 (50.5) 37 (52.1) 0.799     
 Urinary infection 74 (17.6) 10 (14.1) 0.464     
 Intracranial infection 4 (1.0) 1 (1.4) 0.544     
 Skin infection 15 (3.6) 2 (2.8) > 0.050     
 Primary bloodstream infection 39 (9.3) 6 (8.5) 0.822     
Nosocomial- acquired infection 252 (60.0) 52 (73.2) 0.034     
ESBL-producing E. coli, n (%) 241 (57.4) 42 (59.2) 0.780     
ICU stay prior to BSI a 30 (7.1) 6 (8.5) 0.696     
ICU stay after BSI c 32 (7.6) 11 (15.5) 0.030     
Prior surgery a 69 (16.4) 14 (19.7) 0.494     
Surgery after BSI c 37 (8.8) 2 (2.8) 0.084     
Invasive procedure and/or devices prior to BSI a 106 (25.2) 23 (32.4) 0.205     
 Mechanical ventilation 14 (3.3) 4 (5.6) 0.540     
 Central venous catheterization 48 (11.4) 14 (19.7) 0.052     
 Urinary catheterization 47 (11.2) 13 (18.3) 0.090     
 gastric catheterization 33 (7.9) 8 (11.3) 0.337     
 Percutaneous catheterization 24 (5.7) 3 (4.2) 0.820     
Invasive procedure and/or devices after BSI c 67 (16.0) 13 (18.3) 0.619     
 Mechanical ventilation 29 (6.9) 14 (19.7) < 0.001     
 Central venous catheterization 108 (25.7) 32 (45.1) 0.001     
 Urinary catheterization 103 (24.5) 27 (38.0) 0.017     
 Gastric catheterization 73 (17.4) 19 (26.8) 0.061     
 Percutaneous catheterization 47 (11.2) 7 (9.9) 0.740     
Hemodialysis prior to BSI a 8 (1.9) 1 (1.4) > 0.050     
Chemotherapy or radiotherapy prior to BSI a 65 (15.5) 12 (16.9) 0.760     
Corticosteroid use prior to BSI a 28 (6.7) 8 (11.3) 0.169     
Hemodialysis after BSI c 14 (3.3) 3 (4.2) 0.977     
Corticosteroid use after BSI c 32 (7.6) 6 (8.5) 0.808     
Prior Antibiotics use a 164 (39) 38 (53.5) 0.022     
 Cepholosporins 43 (10.2) 5 (7.0) 0.402     
 BLBLI combination antibiotics 72 (17.1) 16 (22.5) 0.273     
 Tigecycline 3 (0.7) 2 (2.8) 0.321     
 Carbapenems 25 (6.0) 12 (16.9) 0.001 0.016 2.839 1.215 6.635
 Aminoglycosides 2 (0.5) 1 (1.4) 0.375     
 Quinolones 52 (12.4) 10 (14.0) 0.689     
Laboratory examination b
 White blood cell (median, IQR) 9.1 (5.1–14.2) 9.6 (3.7–13.3) 0.849     
 Platelet (median, IQR) 117 (52–192) 80 (37–177) 0.078     
 Total protein (median, IQR) 58.9 (53.0–64.7) 53.9 (46.0–62.0) < 0.001 0.006 0.959 0.931 0.988
Severity of illness at time of BSI b
 APACHEII score (median, IQR) 9 (6–12) 13 (9–17) < 0.001 < 0.001 1.131 1.071 1.195
Appropriate empirical treatment after BSI c 389 (92.6) 60 (84.5) 0.024     
 1. Cepholosporins 25 (6.0) 3 (4.2) 0.761     
 2. BLBLI combination antibiotics 150 (35.7) 25 (35.2) 0.935     
 3. Carbapenems 189 (45.0) 34 (47.9) 0.651     
 4. Quinolones 49 (11.7) 6 (8.5) 0.427     
 5. Aminoglycosides 12 (2.9) 2 (2.8) > 0.050     
 6. Tigecycline 5 (1.2) 2 (2.8) 0.598     
Appropriate definitive treatments after BSI c 407 (96.9) 64 (90.1) 0.008 0.017 2.777 1.198 6.437
  1. Data are expressed as n (%) unless otherwise stated
  2. Abbreviations: ESBL extended-spectrum beta-lactamase; β-lactam-β-lactamase inhibitor (BLBLI) combination antibiotics, APACHE acute physiology and chronic health evaluation, BSI bloodstream infection, ICU intensive care unit, IQR interquartile range, SD standard deviation
  3. aDuring the 30 days preceding BSI onset
  4. bAt time of BSI onset
  5. cAfter BSI onset