Skip to main content

Table 1 Mobile antimicrobial resistance genes

From: Selection and dissemination of antimicrobial resistance in Agri-food production

Antibiotic Class Mechanisms of resistance Gene Gene location Species Reference
β-lactams Drug degradation:
β-lactamases
Class A:
Serine Penicillinases: TEM, SHV, CTX-M;
Carbapenemases: KPC, IMI-2, GES
Plasmid Multiples species of Enterobacteriaceae, Acinetobacter and Pseudomonas [8,9,10]
Class B (Metallo-β-Lactamases): NDM-1, IMP, VIM, NDM-9 Stenotrophomonas maltophilia and Enterobacteriaceae (NDM-1), Klebsiella variicola (NDM-9)
Class C (Cephalosporinases): AmpC Enterobacteriaceae and Pseudomonas
Class D (oxacillinases): OXA-23, OXA-48, OXA-181, OXA-143, OXA-372 Acinetobacter, Enterobacteriaceae, Aeromonas, Citrobacter freundii
Class A: GES-1,VEB-1 Integron K. pneumonia, P. aeruginosa and A. baumannii
Class B: NDM-1, IMP, VIM, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, Enterobacteriaceae and A. baumannii (NDM-1)
Aminoglycosides Drug modification Nucleotidyltransferases:
ANT(6)-Ia, ANT(9)-Ib, ANT(4′)-Ia C, ANT(4′)-IIa
ANT(6)-Ib, ANT(4′)-IIb,
ANT(9)-Ia, ANT(2″)-Ia, ANT(3″)-Ia
aadA31
Plasmid
Transposon
Plasmid, transposon, integrin
Integron
Staphylococcus epidermidis, S. aureus, E. faecium, Streptococcus suis, P. aeruginosa, A. baumannii, P. aeruginosa, Vibrio cholera, Salmonella spp. S. enterica, E. coli, Aeromonas media, Pasteurella multocida, Yersinia enterocolitica, C. glutamicum, B. subtilis
Pasteurella multocida and Histophilus somni
[11, 12]
Phosphotransferases:
APH(4)-Ia, APH(6)-Id,
APH(3′)-Ib, −IIIa C, −Via, −VIb, −VIIa, APH(2″)-Ia, −IIIa C
APH(6)-Ic,
APH(3′)-Ia, −IIa C
APH(3′)-Ic, APH(2″)-Ie, APH(3″)-Ib
Plasmid
Transposon
Plasmid, transposon
E. coli, S. enterica, P. aeruginosa, K. pneumoniae, Salmonella spp., Pseudomonas spp., V. cholerae, Edwardsiella tarda, Pasteurella multocida, Aeromonas bestiarum, A. baumannii, S.marcescens, Corynebacteriumspp., Photobacterium spp., Citrobacter spp. S. aureus, Enterococcus spp. E. casseliflavus
Acetyltransferases:
AAC(3)-Ia C, −Ib, −Ic, −Id, −Ie, −Ib, AAC(6′)-Ib”
AAC(3)-IIa, −IIb, −IIc, −IVa, VIa
AAC(6′)-Ia, −Ib C, −Ib’, −Ie, −If, −Ih, −Ip, −Iq, −Im, −Il, −Isa, −Iad, −Iae, −Iaf, −Iai, −Ib, − 31, − 32, − 33, −I30, −IIa, −IIb, −IIc, −Ib-cr, −Ie-APH(2″)-Ia, − 30/AAC(6′)-Ib’, ANT(3″)-Ii-AAC(6′)-IId
Integron
Plasmid
Plasmid, transposon, integron
P. aeruginosa, P. fluorescens, S. enterica, E. coli, E. cloacae, Salmonella typhimurium, Proteus mirabilis, E. faecalis, E. faecium, Streptomyces albulus, C. freundii, A. baumannii, S. marcescens, Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae, S. typhimurium, Citrobacter freundii
Target modification:
16S rRNA methyltransferase
armA, rmtB, rmtC, rmtH Plasmid K. pneumonia, E. coli, S. enterica, P. stuartii,
E. aerogenes,
[13]
armA, rmtA, rmtB, rmtC, npmA, rmtD, rmtE, rmtD2 Transposon/integron C. freundii, P. aerugonosa, S. marcescens, P. mirabilis, E. coli,
Quinolones Drug modification Acetyltransferase: aac(6′)-Ib-cr Plasmid Multiple species of Enterobacteriaceae [14]
Target protection qnrA, qnrB, qnrS, qnrC, qnrD, qnrVC Plasmid Multiple species of Enterobacteriaceae, also Acinetobacter, Aeromonas, Pseudomonas, and Vibrio spp.
Efflux pumps oqxAB, qepA Plasmid Multiples species of Enterobacteriaceae
Macrolides Efflux pumps mefB
mefC
Plasmid E. coli
marine bacteria including Vibrio and Photobacterium
[15, 16]
mefI Transposon S. pneumoniae
mefA, mefE Integron /transposon Streptococcus, Staphylococci
msr(A) Plasmid Staphylococci
Drug modification Phosphotransferase:
mphC, mphA, mphE
Plasmid S. aureus, E. coli, Serratia marscescens, K. pneumonia, A. baumannii, E. coli, Citrobacter freundii
Esterase: ereA, ereB Plasmid E. coli
Target modification:
23S rRNA methylase
erm Plasmid/transposon/integron Multiple species
Ribosomal protection: ABC-F proteins msr(A) Plasmid staphylococci, enterococci, streptococci
Tetracyclines Drug modification tetX,
tet34
tet37
  Bacteroides, Aeromonas, Pseudomonas, Serratia, Vibrio [17]
Ribosomal protection tetM, tetS, tetT, tetB(P), tetQ, tetW, tet32, tet36, otrA Transposon Acinetobacter, Afipia, Enterobacter, Erysipelothrix, Escherichia, Klebsiella, Lactobacillus, Lactococcus, Microbacterium, Mitsuokella, Mycobacterium, Neisseria, Prevotella, Porphyromonas, Ralstonia, Photobacterium, Pseudomonas, Selenomonas, Streptomyces, Vibrio, Megasphaera, Neisseria, Lactococcus, Lactobacillus, Veillonella, Actinomyces, Arcanobacterium, Bacillus, Butyrivibrio, Clostridium, Megasphaera, Roseburia, Staphylococcus, Bacteroides
tetO, poxtA Plasmid/transponson
Efflux pump tetA, tetB tetC, tetD, tetE, tetG tetH, tetJ, tetK, tetL tetA(P), tetV tetY, tetZ, tet30, tet31, tet33, tet35, tet38, tet39
tcr3
otrB, otrC
Plasmid/ Transposon Acinetobacter, Haemophilus, Veillonella, Acinetobacter, Brevundimonsa, Neisseria, Photobacterium, Pseudomonas, Aeromonas, Chlamydia, Alteromonas, Escherichia Providencia, Actinobacillus, Moraxella, Pasteurella, Lactobacillus, Norcardia, Streptomyces, Morganella, Norcardia, Salmonella, Veillonella, Corynebacterium, Stenotrophomonas, Vibrio, Staphylococcu
Unknown tetU   Staphylococci
Lincosamides Drug modification: nucleotidyltransferases lnuA
lnuB
lnuC
lnuE
lnuF, linG
linA N2
lnuG
Plasmid
Plasmid/integron
Transposon
Transposon
Staphylococci
Staphylococci, streptococci, Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae
S. agalactiae, Haemophilus parasuis
Streptococcus suis, S. aureus
E. coli, Salmonella enterica
Bacteroides
Enterococcus faecalis
[18,19,20]
Target modification: 23S rRNA methylase cfr Plasmid Staphylococci, Bacillus spp., Enterococcus spp., Macrococcus caseolyticus, Jeotgalicoccus pinnipedialis, E. coli
erm Plasmid/transposon/integron Multiple species
Ribosomal protection: ABC-F proteins vga
lsa
Plasmid/transposon Staphylococci, enterococci, streptococci
Efflux pump lsa(B) Plasmid Staphylococci
lsa(E) Integron
vga(A), vga(E) Transposon/ plasmid Staphylococci, streptococci, enterococci
vga(C) Plasmid
sal(A) Integron Staphylococci
Phenicols Drug modification: Acetyltransferase catA
catB
Plasmid/ transposon
Integron/ transposon
Multiple species of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria
Multiple species of Gram-negative bacteria
 
Target modification: 23S rRNA methylase cfr Plasmid Staphylococci, Bacillus spp., Enterococcus spp., Macrococcus caseolyticus, Jeotgalicoccus pinnipedialis, E. coli [21]
Efflux pump optrA Plasmid Enterococci [19, 22]
cmr, cmx Plasmid/ transposon Corynebacterium spp., Rhodococcus spp.
floR Plasmid/ integron E. coli, K. pneumoniae, Pasteurella multocida, Pasteurella trehalosi, A. pleuropneumoniae, Stenothrophomonas maltophilia, P. multocida
fexA Transposon Staphylococci
fexB Plasmid Enterococci
oqxAB Plasmid Multiple species of Enterobacteriaceae
Streptogramin Drug modification Streptogramin A acetyltransferase:
vat(A), vat(B), vat(C)
vat(D), vat(E), vat(H)
Plasmid Staphylococci
Enterococci
[19]
Streptogramin B lactone hydrolase:
vgb(A), vgb(B)
Plasmid Staphylococci
Target modification: 23S rRNA methylase streptogramin A: cfr Plasmid Staphylococci, Bacillus spp., Enterococcus spp., Macrococcus caseolyticus, Jeotgalicoccus pinnipedialis, E. coli
streptogramin B: erm Plasmid/transposon/intergron Multiple species
Ribosomal protection: ABC-F proteins streptogramin B: msr(A) Plasmid Staphylococci, enterococci, streptococci
Efflux pump streptogramin A:
vga, lsa(A), sal(A)
Plasmid/transposon/intergron Staphylococci, enterococci, streptococci
streptogramin B:
msr(A), msr(C)
Plasmid/integron
Polymyxin LPS modification Phosphoethanolamine transferase: mcr-1, −2, −3, −4, −5, −6, −7, and − 8 Plasmid E. coli, K. pneumonia, Salmonella, Shigella sonnei, Enterobacter, Cronobacter sakazakii, Kluyvera ascorbata [23, 24]
Vancomycin Target modification vanA–G Plasmid/transposon/integron Staphylococci, enterococci, streptococci, Oerskovia turbata, Arcanobacterium haemolyticum [25]