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Table 2 Genetic distances between circulating viruses and vaccines in northern hemisphere, 2010–2018

From: Debate on the compositions of influenza B in northern hemisphere seasonal influenza vaccines

  Vaccines vs Isolates HA NA
H3N2 17/18 vs 17/18 (n = 500) 0.01229 ± 0.00239 0.01782 ± 0.00354
10–18 (n = 5) vs 17/18 (n = 500) 0.01940 ± 0.00267 0.01733 ± 0.00226
10–18 (n = 5) vs 13–18 (n = 4000) 0.01677 ± 0.00302 0.01323 ± 0.00212
H1N1 17/18 vs 17/18 (n = 500) 0.01516 ± 0.00299 0.00858 ± 0.00224
10–18 (n = 2) vs 17/18 (n = 500) 0.02375 ± 0.00341 0.01839 ± 0.00309
10–18 (n = 2) vs 10–18 (n = 4000) 0.01434 ± 0.00279 0.01495 ± 0.00326
Flu B *V17/18 vs #Y17/18 (n = 500) 0.11356 ± 0.00261 0.06874 ± 0.00470
V10–18 (n = 1) vs V17/18 (n = 500) 0.01367 ± 0.00272 0.01331 ± 0.00197
V10–18 (n = 1) vs V10–18 (n = 2122, 2022) 0.01167 ± 0.00218 0.00958 ± 0.00137
Y10–18 (n = 3) vs Y17/18 (n = 500) 0.02261 ± 0.00226 0.02024 ± 0.00260
Y10–18 (n = 3) vs Y10–18 (n = 2563, 2489) 0.01638 ± 0.00236 0.01769 ± 0.00198
Y15/16 vs V15/16 (n = 500) 0.13695 ± 0.00238 0.07425 ± 0.00328
Y10–15 (n = 2) vs Y17/18 (n = 500) 0.02368 ± 0.00272 0.02261 ± 0.00315
Y10–15 (n = 2) vs Y10–18 (n = 2563, 2489) 0.02362 ± 0.00218 0.02158 ± 0.00129
Y15/16 vs Y17/18 (n = 500) 0.01224 ± 0.00243 0.00926 ± 0.00218
Y15/16 vs Y10–18 (n = 2563, 2489) 0.00721 ± 0.00144 0.00715 ± 0.00101
  1. * V, influenza B/Victoria lineage viruses, # Y, influenza B/Yamagata viruses
  2. It showed the great divergences between the vaccine strains and the seasonal isolates in 2017/2018 and 2015/2016 when the compositions of flu B in the recommended TIVs mismatched the epidemic isolates in the Northern Hemisphere