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Table 1 Characteristics of the HELIUS study population (N = 21,617) by ethnicity

From: Knowledge and use of antibiotics in six ethnic groups: the HELIUS study

VariablesaEthnicity
Dutch
(N = 4564)
South-Asian Surinamese
(N = 3043)
African Surinamese
(N = 4151)
Ghanaian
(N = 2339)
Turkish
(N = 3614)
Moroccan
(N = 3906)
Sociodemographics
 Female sex247554%167255%253561%143461%198055%239261%
 Age in years, median (IQR)47(34–58)48(35–56)50(40–57)47(38–53)42(31–50)40(30–50)
Migration generation
 1st generationN.A.N.A.232877%346884%223195%254470%268069%
 2nd generationN.A.N.A.71523%68316%1084.6%108030%122631%
Educational level
 Unknown250.6%160.5%360.9%421.8%381.1%381.0%
 No school/elementary school1503.3%43714%2316%66028%113531%120531%
 Lower vocational/lower secondary school64614%101033%147736%91739%88925%69418%
 Intermediate vocational/ intermediate secondary school99422%88529%146435%57825%102028%129433%
 Higher vocational/university274960%69523%94323%1426%53215%67517%
Marital status
 Married/registered partnership172438%104334%76619%42018%220861%228559%
 Cohabiting91420%31110%44111%42719%1323.7%1102.8%
 Unmarried/never married147432%100133%223154%77934%76121%101026%
 Divorced/separated3568%58019%61715%65628%40711%41411%
 Widow/widower871.9%923.0%651.6%231.0%902.5%691.8%
Health status
 Self-reported medical conditions (previous 12 months)
  Diabetes mellitus1022.2%52117%41910%1858%3369%38910%
  CVA/one-sided loss of bodily function ≤1 day1603.5%2127%2616%954.1%1965%1955%
  MI incl. ≥half hour chest pain or dotter/bypass operation2335%49116%44011%22510%59116%47612%
  Severe heart condition671.5%1204.0%1052.5%753.2%1534.3%581.5%
  Malignant disorder1032.3%702.3%852.1%331.4%732.0%461.2%
  Severe or chronic fatigue63314%103234%95623%1868%160245%146538%
  High blood pressure53412%72024%123030%77033%61017%54614%
  Artery stenosis851.9%1936%1814.4%1155%34810%2005%
  Respiratory diseases3458%43314%3549%1175%55615%44611%
  Serious/persistent intestinal disorders2495%2488%3087%703.0%43312%39110%
  Psoriasis1363.0%1686%1283.1%713.1%1544.3%1213.1%
  (Chronic) eczema4209%40613%3709%713.1%47113%42311%
  Incontinence3097%32611%3428%1084.7%46413%3008%
Body Mass Index (kg/m2), median (IQR)24.1(21.9–26.7)25.7(23.2–28.8)27.0(23.9–30.8)27.9(25.0–31.2)27.9(24.6–31.7)27.0(23.9–30.7)
 Smoking
  Yes112925%86128%130932%1044.5%124035%52513%
  No, never168937%175858%201649%202787%170047%287474%
  No, but ever173738%41314%80519%1918%64818%49213%
 Alcohol consumption
  Never2977%107235%100224%80635%241467%326584%
  Not in previous 12 months1102.4%2518%2927%40818%35810%3389%
  Monthly or less43610%75825%124230%50822%36710%1273.3%
  2–4 times per month89420%54118%87321%29113%2577%872.2%
  2–3 times per week141331%2629%43911%1938%1323.7%561.4%
   ≥ 4 times per week140831%1475%2727%1094.7%571.6%160.4%
 Difficulty with Dutch language
  YesN.A.N.A.71123%52013%192683%213660%177446%
 Perceived health
  Excellent54112%1625%3037%22610%1173.3%1664.3%
  Very good138130%31010%57114%45820%38311%38410%
  Good220548%162353%233556%118051%187152%187148%
  Mediocre4029%81127%83420%38316%92126%122331%
  Bad280.6%1314.3%1012.4%883.8%3079%2416%
Antibiotics
 Knowledge concerning antibioticsb
  Antibiotics effective for influenza3247%55419%59215%65829%74421%64818%
  Antibiotics effective for pneumonia416692%230477%311477%131258%258773%274173%
  Antibiotics effective for feverc68915%55219%67917%58626%89826%61417%
  Antibiotics effective for sore throatc67215%76026%108927%72032%120334%97826%
  Antibiotics effective for bronchitis224650%138550%186246%91941%123535%148540%
  Higher level of antibiotic knowledged363880%199668%273769%124857%212862%252870%
 Did not finish antibiotic treatment
  Yes, regularly50.1%491.6%441.1%482.1%411.2%441.1%
  Yes, occasionally3327%31210%52713%1748%42412%44512%
  Always finished or no antibiotics420393%264688%352486%205390%310487%336187%
 Saved antibiotics for later
  Yes, regularly20.0%70.2%90.2%50.2%100.3%60.2%
  Yes, occasionally370.8%451.5%681.7%622.7%601.7%461.2%
  No, never2977%30410%49212%1466%38711%43011%
  Not applicable (no antibiotics)420393%264688%352486%205391%310487%336187%
 Ever asked GP for antibiotics
  Yes, regularly380.8%341.1%260.6%361.6%671.9%711.9%
  Yes, occasionally82418%49116%60715%40118%73421%63417%
  No, never367481%248283%344184%183581%274477%307481%
  1. Missing data, n: marital status 128; diabetes 78; stroke 55; myocardial infarction 33; heart condition 83; malignant disorders 137; fatigue 145; high blood pressure 101; artery stenosis 140; respiratory diseases 115; bowel diseases 115; psoriasis 98; eczema 117; incontinence 126; BMI 23; smoking 107; alcohol 127; perceived health 61; AB effective for influenza 614; AB effective for pneumonia 477; AB effective for fever 685; AB effective for sore throat 625; AB effective for bronchitis 663; asked GP for AB 414; did not finish treatment 292; saved AB 325
  2. Abbreviations: IQR Inter Quartile Range, CVA Cerebro Vascular Accident, MI Myocardial infarction, N.A. Not Applicable, GP General Practitioner
  3. N.A. Not applicable (categories not applicable due to Dutch ethnicity)
  4. aAll variables are reported as n (%), unless otherwise indicated
  5. bAnswered “yes” to the statements below
  6. cThe Dutch General Practitioners guidelines (and those of other European countries) advise against the use of antibiotics for fever in general or sore throat, as they usually constitute viral infections, with only a few exceptions in both cases. Therefore, antibiotics are in general not appropriate for these conditions
  7. dBased on a summed score with cutoff determined by an Item Response Theory model (≥4 out of 5 antibiotic knowledge questions correctly answered was considered as having a higher level of knowledge)