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Table 5 Variables associated with number of antibiotic prescriptions in participants linked to ADH (N = 15,007) (zero-inflated negative binomial regression analysis)

From: Knowledge and use of antibiotics in six ethnic groups: the HELIUS study

 UnivariableaMultivariable excluding variables on antibiotic-related behaviorMultivariable including variables on antibiotic-related behavior
IRR(95% CI)P-valuesIRR(95% CI)P-valuesIRR(95% CI)P-values
Sociodemographics
 Ethnicity  .004  .004  .001
  DutchRef  Ref  Ref  
  South-Asian Surinamese
   1st generation1.060.85–1.31 0.860.68–1.10 1.020.82–1.28 
   2nd generation0.820.55–1.21 0.940.61–1.44 0.940.64–1.36 
  African Surinamese
   1st generation0.790.64–0.99 0.730.58–0.93 0.810.65–1.00 
   2nd generation0.830.57–1.22 0.900.59–1.36 0.930.65–1.33 
  Ghanaian
   1st generation0.750.60–0.94 0.770.60–1.00 0.810.65–1.02 
   2nd generation1.660.89–3.11 2.091.06–4.12 2.701.47–4.94 
  Turkish
   1st generation0.850.69–1.04 0.740.59–0.92 0.790.64–0.97 
   2nd generation1.140.87–1.51 1.140.84–1.53 1.100.84–1.44 
  Moroccan
   1st generation0.990.81–1.21 0.890.70–1.11 0.890.72–1.10 
   2nd generation0.840.63–1.13 0.920.67–1.27 1.020.76–1.37 
 Female sex1.361.20–1.54<.0011.351.18–1.54<.0011.291.15–1.46<.001
  Age  .023      
    < 25 yearsRef        
   25–34 years1.090.91–1.30       
   35–44 years1.160.98–1.38       
   45–54 years1.090.92–1.29       
   55–64 years1.140.95–1.36       
    ≥ 65 years1.441.16–1.80       
  Educational level  .096      
   UnknownRef        
   No school/elementary school1.740.86–3.52       
   Lower vocational/lower secondary school1.740.86–3.52       
   Intermediate vocational/ intermediate secondary school1.570.77–3.17       
   Higher vocational/university1.450.71–2.96       
  Marital status  .212      
   Married/registered partnershipRef        
   Cohabiting0.850.72–1.00       
   Unmarried/never married0.990.89–1.10       
   Divorced/separated1.010.90–1.13       
   Widow/widower1.140.90–1.45       
Health status
 Self-reported medical conditions (previous 12 months)
  Diabetes mellitus1.341.17–1.54<.0011.211.04–1.41.0151.221.06–1.41.005
  CVA/one-sided loss of bodily function ≤1 day1.100.95–1.29.208      
  MI incl. ≥half hour chest pain or dotter/bypass operation1.351.19–1.54<.0011.221.06–1.41.005   
  Severe heart condition1.261.04–1.52.019      
  Malignant disorder1.911.47–2.48<.0011.601.21–2.12.0011.601.28–2.00 
  Severe or chronic fatigue1.291.15–1.44<.001      
  High blood pressure1.141.04–1.25.006      
  Artery stenosis1.301.08–1.57.005      
  Respiratory diseases1.501.32–1.71<.0011.341.16–1.54<.0011.291.13–1.47<.001
  Serious/persistent intestinal disorders1.241.07–1.44.004      
  Psoriasis1.080.90–1.31.406      
  (Chronic) eczema1.211.07–1.37.0021.141.00–1.29.042   
  Incontinence1.311.13–1.50<.001      
 Body Mass Index  .736      
   < 18.5Ref        
  18.5–250.980.70–1.37       
  25–300.980.70–1.37       
  30–401.040.74–1.46       
   ≥ 401.060.71–1.57       
 Smoking  .099      
  YesRef        
  No, never1.131.00–1.29       
  No, but ever1.020.87–1.21       
 Alcohol usage  .075      
  NeverRef        
  Not in previous 12 months0.930.77–1.13       
  Monthly or less0.940.80–1.11       
  2–4 times per month1.010.85–1.20       
  2–3 times per week0.730.58–0.91       
   ≥ 4 times per week0.810.61–1.08       
 Difficulty with Dutch language  .320      
  NoRef        
  Yes0.940.86–1.04       
  Not applicable1.050.88–1.25       
 Perceived health  <.001  .001  <.001
  ExcellentRef  Ref  Ref  
  Very good0.980.68–1.42 1.030.71–1.49 0.990.70–1.39 
  Good1.290.94–1.77 1.190.85–1.65 1.170.86–1.59 
  Mediocre1.731.25–2.39 1.401.00–1.97 1.441.05–1.97 
  Bad2.301.62–3.26 1.711.17–2.49 1.721.22–2.43 
Antibiotic-related behavior
 Higher antibiotic knowledge  .054      
 NoRef        
 Yes0.920.85–1.00       
 Ever asked GP for antibiotics  <.001     <.001
  No, neverRef     Ref  
  Yes, regularly2.962.34–3.73    1.871.45–2.41 
  Yes, occasionally1.751.59–1.92    1.151.06–1.30 
 Did not finish treatment  <.001      
  Always finished or no antibioticsRef        
  Yes, regularly1.501.12–2.00       
  Yes, occasionally1.321.18–1.48       
  1. Abbreviations: IRR Incidence Risk Ratio, CI Confidence Interval, CVA Cerebro Vascular Accident, MI Myocardial infarction, GP General Practitioner
  2. aAccounts for zero-inflated distribution