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Table 1 Demographics, clinical characteristics, and conditional logistic regression analysis among patients with vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium colonization with and without subsequent infections

From: Predictors for vancomycin resistant Enterococcus faecium transforming from colonization to infection: a case control study

VariableaCase patients (n = 97)Control patients (n = 194)Univariable OR (95% CI)PMultivariable OR (95% CI)P
Demographics
 Age (y)70.1 (57.6–81.3)72.1 (57.6–82.5)1.00 (0.98–1.01)0.57  
 Male sex48 (49.5)96 (49.5)1.00 (0.27–3.72)> 0.99  
Comorbid conditions at identification
 Charlson score4.0 (3.0–6.0)3.0 (2.0–5.0)1.13 (1.01–1.25)0.03  
 Myocardial infarction4 (4.1)10 (5.2)0.79 (0.24–2.61)0.70  
 Congestive heart failure10 (10.3)28 (14.4)0.67 (0.31–1.47)0.32  
 Peripheral occlusive arterial disease1 (1.0)8 (4.1)0.25 (0.03–2.00)0.19  
 Cerebrovascular diseases17 (17.4)24 (12.2)1.50 (0.70–3.21)0.30  
 Hemiplegia6 (6.2)16 (8.3)0.70 (0.25–2.00)0.51  
 Dementia6 (6.2)15 (7.7)0.79 (0.30–2.08)0.64  
 Chronic pulmonary disease7 (7.2)13 (6.7)1.10 (0.38–3.19)0.60  
 Connective tissue disease3 (3.1)3 (1.6)2.38 (0.38–14.97)0.36  
 Peptic ulcer disease19 (19.6)29 (14.9)1.37 (0.73–2.55)0.33  
 Mild liver diseases14 (4.4)16 (8.3)1.83 (0.86–3.88)0.11  
 Moderate-to-severe liver diseases7 (7.2)8 (4.1)1.83 (0.63–5.29)0.26  
 Moderate-to-severe renal diseases39 (40.2)53 (27.3)2.07 (1.15–3.73)0.022.64 (1.00–6.93)0.05
 Diabetes mellitus without end organ damage35 (36.1)61 (31.4)1.27 (0.73–2.19)0.40  
 Diabetes mellitus with end organ damage7 (7.2)8 (4.1)1.83 (0.63–5.29)0.26  
 Solid tumor without metastases21 (21.7)47 (24.2)0.83 (0.42–1.61)0.58  
 Metastatic solid tumor7 (7.2)11 (5.7)1.31 (0.48–3.62)0.60  
 Leukemia17 (17.5)28 (14.4)1.56 (0.62–3.94)0.35  
 Lymphoma4 (4.1)13 (6.7)0.62 (0.20–1.89)0.40  
 Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome1 (1.0)0 (0)NANA  
Healthcare factors within 30 days before EOF
 Receipt of solid organ transplantation0 (0)4 (2.1)NANA  
 Receipt of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation3 (3.1)15 (7.7)0.33 (0.09–1.24)0.100.37 (0.08–1.63)0.19
 New receipt of hemodialysis15 (15.5)7 (3.6)6.46 (2.12–19.69)0.0013.66 (0.99–13.73)0.05
 ICU admission66 (67.0)43 (22.2)10.63 (5.03–22.48)< 0.0019.32 (3.61–24.02)< 0.001
 GI intervention13 (13.4)9 (4.6)3.34 (1.32–8.47)0.01  
 Steroid use50 (51.6)107 (55.7)0.80 (0.48–1.33)0.39  
 Chemotherapy18 (18.6)46 (23.8)0.65 (0.31–1.34)0.24  
 Parental hyperalimentation40 (41.2)54 (28.0)1.98 (1.14–3.46)0.02  
 Neutropenia14 (14.4)10 (5.2)3.44 (1.37–8.65)0.009  
 Mechanical ventilator49 (50.5)90 (46.4)1.24 (0.71–2.17)0.45  
 Indwelling urinary catheter38 (39.2)92 (47.4)0.68 (0.40–1.16)0.16  
 Central venous catheters87 (89.7)120 (61.9)7.05 (3.11–15.97)< 0.0013.38 (1.30–8.82)0.01
Antibiotics use within 30 days before EOF
 Antipseudomonal penicillin20 (20.6)24 (12.4)1.89 (0.97–3.68)0.06  
 Penicillins combined with β-lactamases inhibitors2 (2.1)7 (3.6)0.54 (0.10–2.79)0.46  
 First-generation cephalosporin0 (0)3 (1.6)NANA  
 Second-generation cephalosporin6 (6.2)5 (2.6)2.68 (0.74–9.68)0.13  
 Third-generation cephalosporin32 (33.0)27 (13.9)2.95 (1.63–5.32)< 0.0014.06 (1.79–9.20)0.001
 Fourth-generation cephalosporin29 (29.9)18 (9.3)4.48 (2.21–9.07)< 0.0015.32 (1.85–10.29)0.002
 Carbapenem40 (41.2)32 (16.5)4.35 (2.28–8.30)< 0.001  
 Fluoroquinolone27 (27.8)29 (15.0)2.17 (1.20–3.95)0.01  
 Metronidazole7 (7.2)11 (5.7)1.29 (0.49–3.44)0.61  
 Aminoglycoside8 (8.3)13 (6.7)1.24 (0.50–3.07)0.64  
 Glycopeptide29 (29.9)31 (16.0)2.28 (1.25–4.14)0.007  
 Tigecycline3 (3.1)10 (5.2)0.60 (0.17–2.18)0.44  
 Daptomycin8 (8.3)17 (8.8)0.93 (0.38–2.28)0.88  
 Linezolid14 (14.4)8 (4.1)4.79 (1.70–13.48)< 0.001  
 SXT9 (9.3)14 (7.2)1.36 (0.53–3.46)0.52  
 Othersb19 (19.6)22 (11.3)2.00 (0.99–4.03)0.050.36 (0.12–1.05)0.06
  1. Abbreviations: IQR interquartile range, OR odds ratios, CI confidence interval, NA not applicable, ICU intensive care unit, EOF end of follow-up, SXT Trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole
  2. aData are median values (interquartile range) for continuous variables and number of cases (percentage) for categorical variables. Mann–Whitney U test was used to compare continuous variables, and χ2 or Fisher exact test was used to compare categorical variables
  3. bOther antimicrobials: numbers of patients receiving of colistin, penicillin, macrolides, and clindamycin were 10, 5, 3, and 3 in case group, and 18, 1, 3, and 0 in control group. A patient may receive more than one antibiotic within 30 days before end of follow-up