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Table 2 Univariate analysis of factors influencing the acquisition of carbapenemase-producing enterobacteriaceae

From: Infection control and risk factors for acquisition of carbapenemase-producing enterobacteriaceae. A 5 year (2011–2016) case-control study

Variables CPE (%) Controls (%) ORa P value
Ward of hospital stay Medicine 7 (6.5%) 100 (93.5%) Ref.b  
High-risk 37 (77.1%) 11 (22.9%) 48.0 (17.3–133.2) < 0.001
Surgery 14 (17.5%) 66 (82.5%) 15.8 (6.5–38.4) < 0.05
LOSc < 20 days 31 (16.9%) 152 (83.1%) Ref.b  
≥ 20 days 27 (51.9%) 25 (48.1%) 5.3 (2.7–10.3) < 0.001
Admission origin Home 36 (18.8%) 155 (81.2%) Ref.b  
Non-Austrian hospital 12 (85.7%) 2 (14.3%) 25.8 (5.5–120.5) < 0.001
Austrian hospital 10 (33.3%) 20 (66.7%) 12 (2.2–64.3) ns
Hospital admission in the previous yeard none 18 (10.8%) 148 (89.2%) Ref.b  
yes 40 (58.0%) 29 (42.0%) 11.4 (5.7–22.4) < 0.001
Surgical interventions none 49 (22.5%) 169 (77.5%) Ref.b ns
yes 9 (52.9%) 8 (47.1%) 3.9 (1.4–10.6) < 0.001
Mechanical ventilation (MV) none 33 (17.6%) 154 (82.4%) Ref.b  
yes 25 (52.1%) 23 (47.9%) 5.1 (2.6–10.0) < 0.001
Central vascular catheter (CVC) none 19 (12.7%) 131 (87.3%)   
yes 39 (45.9%) 46 (54.1%) 5.8 (3.1–11.1) < 0.001
Presence of co-morbidity (CCIe) < 4 43 (22.5%) 148 (77.5%)   
≥4 15 (34.1%) 29 (65.9%) 1.8 (0.8–3.6) ns
Carbapenem exposuref none 46 (79.3%) 174 (98.3%) Ref. b  
yes 12 (20.7%) 3 (1.7%) 15.1 (4.1–55.9) < 0.001
Antimicrobial therapy >  10 daysf none 27 (46.6%) 144 (29.3%) Ref. b  
>  10 days 14 (24.1%) 4 (2.3%) 18.6 (5.7–61.0) < 0.001
<  10 days 17 (29.3%) 29 (16.4%) 5.9 (1.7–21.1) ns
Contact with healthcare system of high-risk countryf,g none 39 (19.0%) 166 (81.0%) Ref. b  
yes 19 (63.3%) 11 (36.7%) 6.8 (2.9–15-5) <  0.001
  1. aOR: Odds ratio, bRef.: Reference category, cLOS: Length of stay, d in any hospital, eCCI: Charlson comorbidity index, f 90 days before VGH admission, g Healthcare system of countries of high or unknown carbapenem-resistant enterobacteriaceae prevalence.