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Table 1 Characteristics of farms and baseline demographic data of farmers by types of antibiotic misuse (N = 88)

From: Antibiotic use in chicken farms in northwestern China

CharacteristicsTotal N (%)Appropriate use N (%)Misuse, N (%)
Prohibited onlyWithdrawal onlyBoth types
Total, N (%)88 (100)19 (21.6)56 (63.6)3 (3.4)10 (11.4)
Farm
Size
 Small49 (55.7)10 (52.6)30 (53.6)1 (33.3)8 (80.0)
 Medium34 (38.6)5 (26.3)25 (44.6)2 (66.7)2 (20.0)
 Large5 (5.7)4 (21.1)1 (1.8)00
Types of farm
 Family81 (92.0)14 (73.7)54 (96.4)3 (100)10 (100)
 Factory7 (8.0)5 (26.3)2 (3.6)00
Number of workers (person)
 ≤ 369 (78.4)12 (63.2)46 (82.1)2 (66.7)9 (90.0)
 > 319 (21.6)7 (36.8)10 (17.9)1 (33.3)1 (10.0)
Farm duration (years)
 < 1017 (19.3)7 (36.8)7 (12.5)03 (30.0)
 10–1955 (62.5)11 (57.9)37 (66.1)2 (66.7)5 (50.0)
 ≥ 2016 (18.2)1 (5.3)12 (21.4)1 (33.3)2 (20.0)
Species of chicken
 Layer63 (71.6)15 (78.9)37 (66.1)3 (100)8 (80.0)
 Broiler23 (26.1)4 (21.1)18 (32.1)01 (10.0)
 Hatchery2 (2.3)01 (1.8)01 (10.0)
Types of feedlots
 Soil feedlots60 (68.2)9 (47.4)42 (75.0)2 (66.7)7 (70.0)
 Sanitary house28 (31.8)10 (52.6)14 (25.0)1 (33.3)3 (30.0)
Feed type
 Premixed43 (48.9)11 (57.9)22 (39.3)3 (100)7 (70.0)
 Concentrated40 (45.5)6 (31.6)31 (55.4)03 (30.0)
 Complete5 (5.7)2 (10.5)3 (5.4)00
Waste treatment
 Send to field71 (80.7)11 (57.9)51 (91.1)1 (33.3)8 (80.0)
 Compost or Methane17 (19.3)8 (42.1)5 (8.9)2 (66.7)2 (20.0)
Farmer: owner/ manager
Gender
 Male67 (76.1)15 (78.9)42 (75.0)3 (100)7 (70.0)
 Female21 (23.9)4 (21.1)14 (25.0)03 (30.0)
Age (years old)
 18–4524 (27.3)5 (26.3)12 (21.4)2 (66.7)5 (50.0)
 > 4564 (72.7)14 (73.7)44 (78.6)1 (33.3)5 (50.0)
Marital status
 Married74 (84.1)13 (68.4)48 (85.7)3 (100)10 (100)
 Not-married14 (15.9)6 (31.6)8 (14.3)00
Education
 Primary16 (18.2)2 (10.5)13 (23.2)01 (10.0)
 Secondary47 (53.4)7 (36.8)33 (58.9)1 (33.3)6 (60.0)
 ≥ high school25 (28.4)10 (52.6)10 (17.9)2 (66.7)3 (30.0)
Family income/month (yuan)
 < 500032 (36.4)5 (26.3)19 (33.9)1 (33.3)7 (70.0)
 ≥ 500056 (63.6)14 (73.7)37 (66.1)2 (66.7)3 (30.0)
Professional farm training
 No50 (56.8)8 (42.1)34 (60.7)1 (33.3)7 (70.0)
 Yes38 (43.2)11 (57.9)22 (39.3)2 (66.7)3 (30.0)
Farming experience (years)
 < 1016 (18.2)5 (26.3)8 (14.3)03 (30.0)
 10–1931 (35.2)8 (42.1)19 (33.9)1 (33.3)3 (30.0)
 ≥ 2041 (46.6)6 (31.6)29 (51.8)2 (66.7)4 (40.0)
  1. Note: Prohibited means misusing antibiotics in the government prohibited list for food animals
  2. Withdrawal means misusing antibiotics during the withdrawal period