Skip to main content

Table 4 Distribution of estimated independent variables predicting antibiotic misuse patterns (Multinomial regression with appropriate use of antibiotics as reference category)

From: Antibiotic use in chicken farms in northwestern China

VariableMisuse
Pattern IPattern IIPattern III
RRR (95% CI)RRR (95% CI)RRR (95% CI)
Education level
 Primaryref.ref.ref.
 Secondary0.06 (0, 0.88) *0.37 (0.02, 6.25)0.18 (0.01, 4.31)
 ≥ High school0.01 (0,0.3) **0.07 (0, 1.56)0.40 (0.02, 9.64)
Gender
 Maleref.ref.ref.
 Female0.83 (0.15, 4.54)0.52 (0.09, 2.99)0.72 (0.1, 5.39)
Family income /month (yuan)
 < 5000ref.ref.ref.
 ≥ 50000.08 (0.01, 0.68) *0.16 (0.02, 1.10)0.39 (0.04, 3.56)
Formal farming training
 Noref.ref.ref.
 Yes1.14 (0.24, 8.27)0.91 (0.18, 4.70)0.08 (0.01, 0.79) *
Knowledge of risks
 Median (IQR)2.81 (0.98, 8.04)2.63 (0.96, 7.22)2.34 (0.73, 7.55)
Farm size
 Smallref.ref.ref.
 Medium8.2 (1.31, 51.19) *1.92 (0.37, 10.07)1.77 (0.24, 13.11)
 Large0 (0)0 (0)0.08 (0,2.03)
  1. * P < 0.05; **P < 0.01; CI Confidence interval, RRR Relative risk ratio. IQR Interquartile range, Ref Reference group. Pattern I: Excessive use of prohibited antibiotics; Pattern II: Moderate use of prohibited antibiotics; Pattern III: Use of many kinds of prohibited antibiotics