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Table 2 Characteristics and antibiotic resistance profile of the Gram–negative multidrug-resistant organisms

From: Poor infection prevention and control standards are associated with environmental contamination with carbapenemase-producing Enterobacterales and other multidrug-resistant bacteria in Swiss companion animal clinics

Insti-tution Species Represen-tative strain Origin (n=) ST β-lactamase genes Antibiotic resistance profilea
SMX
(≥512)
TMP
(>4)
CIP
(>0.5)
TET
(≥16)
MERO
(>8)
(ESBL screen >0.125)
AZI
NAb
NAL
(≥32)
FOT
(>2)
(ESBL screen >1)
CHL
(>8)
TGC
(>2)
TAZ
(>4)
(ESBL screen >1)
COL
(>2)
AMP
(>8)
GEN
(>4)
Env Empl
A E. coli M_054   1 73   32 ≤0.25 ≤0.015 ≤2 ≤0.03 4 ≤4 ≤0.25 ≤8 ≤0.25 ≤0.5 16 4 ≤0.5
E. coli M_042   1 543   32 ≤0.25 ≤0.015 ≤2 ≤0.03 ≤2 ≤4 ≤0.25 ≤8 ≤0.25 ≤0.5 16 4 2
E. coli M_064   1 2640   32 ≤0.25 ≤0.015 ≤2 ≤0.03 4 ≤4 ≤0.25 ≤8 ≤0.25 ≤0.5 8 2 ≤0.5
E. coli M_054   1 1193 CTX-M-15 16 ≤0.25 >8 ≤2 ≤0.03 4 >128 >4 ≤8 ≤0.25 4 ≤1 >64 16
E. coli M_050   1 167 NDM-5/ CMY-2/TEM-30 >1024 >32 >8 >64 >16 >64 >128 >4 >128 ≤0.25 >8 ≤1 >64 32
E. coli M_018   1 131 CTX-M-15 32 0.5 0.25 4 ≤0.03 4 >128 >4 ≤8 ≤0.25 >8 ≤1 >64 ≤0.5
E. coli M_104   1 95 CTX-M-55 32 0.5 ≤0.015 ≤2 ≤0.03 4 ≤4 >4 ≤8 ≤0.25 8 ≤1 >64 ≤0.5
E. cloacae 19/EPI0154 1     >1024 0.5 0.5 >64 0.25 32 32 1 ≤8 0.5 1 ≤1 >64 4
B K. pneumoniae 19/EPI0077 18   11 OXA-48/ DHA-1 >1024 4 >8 4 1 >64 >128 >4 32 0.5 >8 ≤1 >64 4
E. coli 19/EPI0083 1   410 OXA-181/ CMY-42 16 2 >8 >64 0.5 16 >128 >4 32 1 >8 ≤1 >64 ≤0.5
E. coli MB_042   1 410 OXA-181/ CMY-42 16 1 >8 4 0.5 8 >128 >4 ≤8 ≤0.25 >8 ≤1 >64 ≤0.5
E. coli 19/EPI0060 1   4038 OXA-48 >1024 >32 >8 >64 0.5 16 >128 >4 16 1 >8 ≤1 >64 ≤0.5
E. coli MB_091   1 538   32 ≤0.25 ≤0.015 ≤2 ≤0.03 ≤2 ≤4 ≤0.25 ≤8 ≤0.25 ≤0.5 >16 4 ≤0.5
E. coli MB_066   1 95   16 ≤0.25 ≤0.015 ≤2 ≤0.03 ≤2 ≤4 ≤0.25 ≤8 ≤0.25 ≤0.5 8 2 ≤0.5
E. coli MB_100   1 335   16 ≤0.25 ≤0.015 ≤2 ≤0.03 4 ≤4 ≤0.25 ≤8 ≤0.25 ≤0.5 4 2 ≤0.5
E. coli MB_003   1 1730 CTX-M-1 >1024 >32 ≤0.015 ≤2 ≤0.03 8 ≤4 >4 >128 ≤0.25 1 ≤1 >64 >32
E. coli MB_074   1 131 CTX-M-27 >1024 ≤0.25 >8 64 ≤0.03 ≤2 >128 >4 ≤8 ≤0.25 4 ≤1 >64 1
E. coli MB_073   1 131 CTX-M-14 32 ≤0.25 ≤0.015 ≤2 0.06 8 ≤4 >4 ≤8 ≤0.25 2 ≤1 >64 ≤0.5
E. cloacae 19/EPI0060 1    OXA-48 ≤8 1 ≤0.015 ≤2 0.5 16 ≤4 2 ≤8 ≤0.25 ≤0.5 ≤1 >64 ≤0.5
E. cloacae 19/EPI0059 1     >1024 >32 2 >64 0.12 8 >128 >4 >128 ≤0.25 >8 ≤1 >64 4
C E. coli MC_022   1 69   32 ≤0.25 ≤0.015 < 2 ≤0.03 4 ≤4 ≤0.25 ≤8 ≤0.25 ≤0.5 8 4 ≤0.5
E E. coli 19/EPI0155 1    OXA-48 >1024 >32 >8 >64 0.25 8 >128 >4 >128 ≤0.25 >8 ≤1 >64 ≤0.5
  1. aMIC in bold indicates resistance. The resistance breakpoints presented are those for E. coli from the European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing [32] except for NAL, SMX and TET for which the breakpoints from the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute [33] were used. bNA, not available; no breakpoints were available for E. coli for azithromycin; an MIC > 64 was tentatively used as resistance breakpoint. Abbreviations: Env environment; Empl employee, ST sequence type, SMX sulfamethoxazole, TMP trimethoprim, CIP ciprofloxacin, TET tetracycline, MERO meropenem, AZI azithromycin, NAL nalidixic acid, FOT cefotaxime, CHL chloramphenicol, TGC tigecycline, TAZ ceftazidime, COL colistin, AMP ampicillin, GEN gentamicin, E. coli Escherichia coli, E. cloacae Enterobacter cloacae, K. pneumoniae Klebsiella pneumoniae