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Table 5 Sample assumptions in an AMR- intervention theory of change exercise

From: A review of animal health and drug use practices in India, and their possible link to antimicrobial resistance

Input and project output Outcome Assumptions
Farmer receives training and written information on how to reduce antibiotic use and the importance of AMR Farmers have increased knowledge on antibiotic use and AMR • Farmers have enough background knowledge to understand the information
• Farmers feel the relevance for them
• Farmers are comfortable reading
Farmer receives messages, support and other communication that promote readiness to change Farmers are motivated to change behaviour • Farmers believe that change of behaviour will have benefits that exceed costs
• Farmers believe that change of behaviour is feasible and socially desirable
• Veterinarians and other actors stop promoting antibiotics
Farmers have access to options that can reduce antimicrobial use Farmers change practice and reduce antibiotic use • Farmers can afford inputs needed
• Farmers can afford alternatives
• Farmers see benefits from reducing antibiotics
Reduction of antibiotics leads to reduced antimicrobial resistance in animals, animal products and animal environment • There are no other sources of antibiotics for the animals that farmers cannot control
• Reduced use per animal is not countered by increase in the number of animals
Reduced AMR in humans • AMR in animals is contributing significantly to human AMR