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Table 1 Procedures associated with increased risk of SARS-1 transmission to healthcare workers

From: Risk of SARS-CoV-2 transmission by aerosols, the rational use of masks, and protection of healthcare workers from COVID-19


Point or Pooled estimate (OR, 95% CI)

Tracheal intubation (4 cohort studies & 4 case-control studies)

6.6 (2.3–18.9) & 6.6 (4.1–10.6)

Non-invasive ventilation (2 cohort studies)

3.1 (1.4–6.8)

Tracheotomy (1 case-control study)

4.2 (1.5–11.5)

Manual ventilation before intubation (1 cohort study)

2.8 (1.3–6.4)

  1. Adapted from Tran et al. [40]: Risk of transmission of acute respiratory infections to healthcare workers caring for patients undergoing risk procedures compared with the risk of transmission to healthcare workers caring for patients not undergoing risk procedures. Most studies included in the systemic review assessed whether healthcare workers had proper infection control training or wore personal protective equipment while caring for patients with laboratory-confirmed SARS