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Table 2 Microbial skin counts prior to and during preoperative skin antisepsis

From: Are three antiseptic paints needed for safe preparation of the surgical field? A prospective cohort study with 239 patients

Microbial skin counts/pathogensa Timing P-value for difference (paint 2 vs. 3)
Prior to skin antisepsisb After 2nd paint After 3rd paint
Overall
\( \sqrt{\mathrm{CFU}}, \) mean (SD) 11.2 (47.5) 0.5 (5.5) 0.1 (0.6) 0.2
 CFU, median 7.0 0.0 0.0 0.002
 CFU, IQR 1.0 to 79.8 0.0 to 0.0 0.0 to 0.0
 CFU, range 0.0 to 50,000.0 0.0 to 7000.0 0.0 to 33.0
 No. patients with 0 CFU (%) 30 (12.6) 203 (86.0) 224 (94.5) 0.003
 No. patients with > 5 CFU (%) 126 (52.9) 5 (2.1) 3 (1.3) 0.9
 No. patients with ≥1 pathogensc detected (%) 1 (0.4) 1 (0.4) 0 (0) 0.5
 No. patients with insufficient microbial reductiona,d (%) 0 (0) 6 (2.5) 3 (1.3) 0.5
Povidone iodine subgroup
\( \sqrt{\mathrm{CFU}}, \) mean (SD) 13.7 (60.2) 0.9 (7.0) 0.2 (0.72) 0.2
 CFU, median 8.5 0.0 0.0 0.002
 CFU, IQR 1.0 to 84.0 0.0 to 0.0 0.0 to 0.0
 CFU, range 0.0 to 50,000.0 0.0 to 7000.0 0.0 to 33.0
 No. patients with 0 CFU (%) 18 (12.5) 114 (80.2) 133 (93.0) 0.002
 No. patients with > 5 CFU (%) 80 (55.2) 5 (3.5) 3 (2.1) 0.7
 No. patients with ≥1 pathogensc detected (%) 1 (0.7) 1 (0.7) 0 (0) 0.7
 No. patients with insufficient microbial reductiona,d (%) 0 (0) 6 (4.2) 3 (2.1) 0.5
Chlorhexidine subgroup
\( \sqrt{\mathrm{CFU}}, \) mean (SD) 7.5 (12.4) 0.1 (0.3) 0.03 (0.2) 0.4
 CFU, median 5.5 0.0 0.0 0.5
 CFU, IQR 1.0 to 60.0 0.0 to 0.0 0.0 to 0.0
 CFU, range 0.0 to 5000.0 0.0 to 2.0 0.0 to 1.0
 No. patients with 0 CFU (%) 12 (12.8) 89 (95.0) 91 (97.0) 0.7
 No. patients with > 5 CFU (%) 46 (48.9) 0 (0) 0 (0)
 No. patients with ≥1 pathogensc detected (%) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0)
 No. patients with insufficient microbial reductiona,d (%) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0)
  1. Among the 239 individuals, CFU data were overall missing for 1 patient at baseline, for 3 patients after paint 2, and for 2 patients after paint 3
  2. CFU colony forming units, IQR interquartile range, SD standard deviation
  3. aIn the antiseptic area (template window area, 25 cm2)
  4. bImmediately before preoperative skin antisepsis (first paint)
  5. cPathogen defined according to the National Healthcare Safety Network common commensals/pathogen list (version 9.2; www.cdc.gov)
  6. dInsufficient reduction was defined as detection of > 5 colony forming units and/or ≥ 1 pathogens in the examined, antiseptic area