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Table 1 Characteristics of undocumented migrants and uninsured legal residents (N = 760) and determinants of nasal MRSA carriage, in Amsterdam, the Netherlands, October 2018–October 2019 (univariable logistic regression analyses with Firth’s correction)

From: Nasal carriage of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) among undocumented migrants and uninsured legal residents in Amsterdam, the Netherlands: a cross-sectional study

  Total (N = 760) MRSA-negative participants (N = 745) MRSA-positive participants (N = 15) Univariable associations
Sociodemographic variables n % n % N % OR 95%CI
Sex
 Male 442 58% 431 58% 11 73% Ref  
 Female 317 42% 313 42% 4 27% 0.54 0.18–1.62
 Other 1 0.1% 1 0.1% 0 0% * *
Age in years, median (IQR) 40 (31–50) 40 (31–50) 35 (32–48)   
Age, categorized
  < 35 years 249 33% 243 33% 6 40% Ref  
 35–49 years 302 40% 295 40% 7 47% 0.95 0.33–2.76
 50–64 years 183 24% 181 24% 2 13% 0.52 0.12–2.25
  ≥ 65 years 26 3% 26 3% 0 0% 0.71 0.04–12.90
Kruispost target population
 Undocumented migrant 705 93% 691 93% 14 93% Ref  
 Uninsured legal resident 55 7% 54 7% 1 7% 1.31 0.24–7.21
Region of birth
 Europe 36 5% 36 5% 0 0% Ref  
 Asia 229 30% 222 30% 7 47% 2.46 0.14–44.01
 Africa 267 35% 261 35% 6 40% 1.81 0.10–32.89
 North/South America 227 30% 225 30% 2 13% 0.81 0.04–17.20
Educational level
 No school 33 4% 33 4% 0 0% Ref  
 Primary school 129 17% 125 17% 4 27% 2.40 0.13–45.74
 Secondary school 320 42% 314 42% 6 40% 1.38 0.08–25.13
 Higher education 274 36% 269 36% 5 33% 1.37 0.07–25.28
Migration history
Year of leaving country of origin, median (IQR) 2011 (2003–2016) 2011 (2003–2016) 2016 (2009–2016)   
Year of leaving country of origin, categorized
  < 2010 335 45% 330 45% 5 33% Ref  
 2010–2017 329 44% 321 44% 8 53% 1.59 0.54–4.69
  ≥ 2018 88 12% 86 12% 2 13% 1.74 0.38–7.89
Years since leaving country of origin, median (IQR) 8 (3–16) 8 (3–16) 3 (3–10) 0.98 0.93–1.04
Year of arrival in the Netherlands, median (IQR) 2013 (2006–2017) 2013 (2006–2017) 2016 (2012–2018)   
Year of arrival in the Netherlands
  < 2010 279 37% 276 37% 3 20% Ref  
 2010–2017 308 41% 300 41% 8 53% 2.23 0.64–7.84
  ≥ 2018 167 22% 163 22% 4 27% 2.17 0.53–8.91
Years since arrival in the Netherlands, median (IQR) 5 (2–13) 6 (2–13) 3 (1–7) 0.97 0.91–1.04
Way of entering the Netherlands
 Expired tourist/working/student visa 406 54% 398 54% 8 53% Ref  
 Rejected asylum seeker 135 18% 133 18% 2 13% 0.88 0.21–3.65
 EU citizen 40 5% 39 5% 1 7% 1.78 0.30–10.41
 Illegally crossing borders 117 16% 113 15% 4 27% 1.86 0.58–5.94
 Legally/other visa**/work 37 5% 37 5% 0 0% 0.63 0.04–11.04
 Other/unknown 18 2% 18 2% 0 0% 1.27 0.07–22.80
Housing situation (multiple answers possible)
 Lives in BBB facility 56 7% 55 7% 1 7% 1.29 0.23–7.07
 Lives with friends/family 401 53% 394 53% 7 47% 0.79 0.29–2.12
 Lives in illegal rent 169 22% 166 22% 3 20% 0.97 0.29–3.23
 Lives in housing provided by charity 64 9% 63 8% 1 7% 1.11 0.20–6.09
 Lives on the streets 60 8% 59 8% 1 7% 1.19 0.22–6.55
 Lives in other housing# 51 7% 49 7% 2 13% 2.61 0.66–10.36
Number of housemates
 No housemates 105 14% 103 14% 2 13% Ref  
  < 3 335 45% 329 45% 6 40% 0.82 0.19–3.57
 3–5 228 31% 223 30% 5 33% 1.02 0.22–4.63
  ≥ 6 79 11% 77 11% 2 13% 1.34 0.23–7.90
Antibiotic use
Current antibiotic use 38 5% 36 5% 2 13% 3.55 0.88–14.25
Recent antibiotic use
 Current or < 3 months ago 89 12% 87 12% 2 14% Ref  
 3–6 months ago 54 7% 53 7% 1 7% 0.98 0.13–7.64
  > 6 months ago or never used antibiotics 454 63% 447 63% 7 50% 0.59 0.14–2.50
 Does not remember when last using antibiotics 125 17% 121 17% 4 29% 1.30 0.27–6.23
Other potential risk factors
Has been abroad for > 24 h in the past 6 months 186 25% 183 25% 3 20% 0.85 0.26–2.82
Ever admitted/treated in a foreign hospital 268 36% 265 36% 3 20% 0.50 0.15–1.65
Ever had surgery abroad 254 33% 250 34% 4 27% 0.77 0.26–2.33
Ever received a blood transfusion
 No/unknown 717 94% 703 94% 14 93% Ref  
 Yes 43 6% 42 6% 1 7% 1.71 0.31–9.46
Ever (been) paid for sex
 No, never 613 81% 600 81% 13 87% Ref  
 Yes, ever paid 123 16% 121 16% 2 13% 0.92 0.23–3.58
 Yes, ever been paid 24 3% 24 3% 0 0% 0.91 0.05–15.72
Ever injected drugs 16 2% 15 2% 1 7% 4.88 0.84–28.19
  1. *Insufficient estimation of OR and variance due to ‘0’ count cell
  2. **Includes family visa and Schengen visa
  3. #Includes legal rent, housing for asylum seekers, boats, employers, hotels, crisis care, winter care, campers and forest huts
  4. Missing data: region of birth, n = 1; education, n = 4; year of leaving country of origin, n = 8; year of arrival in the Netherlands, n = 6; way of entering the Netherlands, n = 7; number of housemates, n = 13; current antibiotic use, n = 10; recent antibiotic use, n = 38; abroad in past 6 m, n = 4; admitted to foreign hospital, n = 7
  5. Abbreviations: MRSA methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, OR odds ratio, CI confidence interval, IQR inter quartile range, EU European Union, BBB bed bath bread