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Table 4 Exposure to anti-infective drugs before and after guideline update

From: Sepsis related mortality of extremely low gestational age newborns after the introduction of colonization screening for multi-drug resistant organisms

Year of discharge 2011–2013
n = 2.948%
2014–2018
n = 6.630%
P#
Any antibiotics 96.7 93.3 <  0.001
Penicillins 76.6 66.6 <  0.001
Ampicillin 71.0 66.3 <  0.001
Piperacillin 15.6 17.5 0.02
Piperacillin/Tazobactam 11.5 12.0 0.65
Aminoglycosides 75.3 74.1 0.2
Gentamycin 56.0 56.9 0.44
Tobramycin 20.6 18.3 0.01
Glycopeptides 53.4 49.2 < 0.001
Vancomycin 42.0 41.0 0.34
Teicoplanin 11.8 9.5 0.001
Carbapenems 33.4 35.4 0.06
Meropenem 26.3 31.6 < 0.001
Imipenem 9.1 4.9 < 0.001
Others
 Cefotaxim 40.1 31.1 < 0.001
 Metronidazol 6.4 5.4 0.05
 Erythromycin 11.8 9.3 0.001
 Fluconazol 4.4 9.5 < 0.001
 Amphothericin B 1.7 3.5 < 0.001
  1. Exposure to anti-infective drugs was defined as treatment of preterm infants (number of neonates who got any dose of the according anti-infective drug; denomination: number of infants admitted and enrolled in GNN) for clinical suspicion of infection during the initial stay in hospital
  2. # Fisher’s exact test (two-sided). All Table 4 data is based on infants enrolled in the GNN