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Table 2 Epidemiological data necessary to build a “One-Health” cost model of AMR

From: A one health framework to estimate the cost of antimicrobial resistance

Data element Data items
Prevalence of colonisation (Human Health) Proportion of individuals colonised by drug-resistant pathogens, by subgroups (please see text) at the time of health care access
Proportion of individuals colonised by drug-resistant pathogens, by subgroups at point prevalence studies
Prevalence of colonisation (Animal Health) Proportion of food animals colonised by drug-resistant pathogens post-slaughter
Prevalence of colonisation (Environment) Presence/absence of drug-resistant pathogens in water, soil and air
Relevant to Human health:
• Proportion of healthcare facility or home surfaces contaminated with resistant microorganisms (implies choice of relevant surfaces)
• Abundance and diversity of drug-resistant pathogens in health facility/household effluent
Relevant to Animal health:
• Proportion of animal housing, abattoir and food preparation surfaces contaminated with resistant microorganisms (implies choice of relevant surfaces)
• Abundance and diversity of drug-resistant pathogens in farming, abattoir and food preparation entities (restaurants & food processing plants) effluent
The Environment:
• Abundance and diversity of drug-resistant pathogens per volume/quantity of water, soil or air measured.
Prevalence of infection (Human Health) Number of patients with infection, out of overall number of patients in the health care setting in that specific subgroup, at the time of assessment
Prevalence of infection (Animal Health) Number of animals with infection, out of overall number of animals in the veterinary care/farm setting in that specific subgroup, at the time of assessment
Incidence of colonisation (Human Health) Number of new colonisations over an appropriate denominator (implies choice of denominator: see Table 2 in [16])
e.g. in outbreaks of KPC in NICUs, the number of new colonisations is also taken into account [17]
For example, number of unique cases of colonised Clostridium difficile cases identified over 1000 patient-days (i.e. incident rate)
Incidence of colonisation (Animal Health) Number of new colonisations out of animals not colonised
Incidence of infection (Human Health) Number of patients with new infection caused by a pathogen resistant to 1st line, 2nd line, 3rd line antimicrobials, or MDR, by an appropriate denominator (implies choice of denominator: see Table 2 in [16]), by subgroup
Incidence of infection (Animal Health) Number of animals with new infection caused by a pathogen resistant to 1st line, 2nd line, 3rd line antimicrobials, or MDR, by an appropriate rate denominator (implies choice of denominator), by subgroup