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Table 7 Costs related to farm animals colonised or infected with resistant pathogens (using farmers as proxy), necessary in a “One-Health” cost model

From: A one health framework to estimate the cost of antimicrobial resistance

Data element Category of costs Individual costs
Direct Costs related to resistant infection or colonisation with resistant bacteria within farm animals − costs of 2nd, 3rd line antibiotic used for therapy vs growth promotion vs prophylaxis/metaphylaxis
− Cost of veterinary consultation
− Costs of diagnostic work-up
− Reduction in farm productivity / output caused by AMR or antimicrobial restriction/ban
  Out-of-pocket expenditure by the farmer − any related animal transport, slaughter
− costs of culling animals
− Restocking with animals/eggs
  Surveillance and control activities − Costs of enhanced surveillance
− Cost of any screening that is triggered
− Costs of isolation, cohorting or contact precautions
  Legal and insurance costs − Insurance costs
− Litigation costs
− Costs due to penalties or taxes associated with antimicrobial use; this is a reality in several EU countries (e.g. yellow card rule and special taxes on certain antimicrobial products in Denmark)
  Information and training costs − Cost of any AMR public health or information campaign (e.g. including screening, biosecurity advising aimed at preventing or managing animals with resistant infection)
− Costs of pre-service, in-service and continuous professional education per relevant cadre of veterinary healthcare professional and farm staff
Indirect costs Loss of productivity to the farm or the wider food chain (if they are in some way dependent on output from the AMR affected farm and hence unable to maintain their normal level of productivity/sales).a − Reduction in individual farm productivity / output
− Longer time to market
− Reduction in farm productivity / impact on the food chain (if food chain in some way dependent on output from the AMR affected farm and hence unable to maintain the normal level of productivity/sales)
− Reduction in sales following a lower demand that is caused by knowledge of the existence of the resistant pathogen in the food chain
  Out-of-pocket expenditure by the consumer − Increased cost of meat and other animal food products as a consequence of increased production costs