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Table 2 Characteristics of the study cohort

From: Evaluating antimicrobial appropriateness in a tertiary care pediatric ICU in Saudi Arabia: a retrospective cohort study

Variable Entire cohort N = 274 Inappropriate N = 133 Appropriate N = 141 P value
Count Percentage Count Percentage Count Percentage
Age        
 Median months (25th–75th percentile) 22 (5–65) 24 (5–79) 22 (5–56) 0.459
Gender        
 Male 132 50.8% 64 50% 68 51.9% 0.804
 Female 127 49.2% 64 50% 63 48.1%
Comorbidities        
 Neurologic/neuromuscular 96 35.00% 47 35.30% 49 34.80% 0.510
 Pulmonary disease 65 23.70% 23 17.30% 42 29.80% 0.011
 Gastrointestinal 50 18.20% 24 18.00% 26 18.40% 0.529
 Metabolic diseases 18 6.60% 9 6.80% 9 6.40% 0.545
 Endocrine disease 11 4.00% 8 6.00% 3 2.10% 0.091
 Cardiac disease 45 16.40% 24 18.00% 21 14.90% 0.294
 Renal disease 27 9.90% 15 11.30% 12 8.50% 0.286
 Hematological disease 9 3.30% 3 2.30% 6 4.30% 0.280
 Preterm 31 11.30% 13 9.80% 18 12.80% 0.278
 Genetic/syndromic 74 27.00% 40 30.10% 34 24.10% 0.165
Admission type        
 Medical 187 68.2% 75 56.4% 112 79.4%  < 0.001
 Surgical 83 30.3% 57 42.9% 26 18.4%  < 0.001
 Trauma 3 1.1% 1 0.7% 2 1.4% 0.522
 Burn 1 0.4% 0 0% 1 0.8% 0.485
Number of comorbidities        
 No comorbidities 99 36.10% 50 37.60% 49 34.80% 0.864
 1 to 2 130 47.40% 61 45.90% 69 48.90%
 3 or more 45 16.40% 22 16.50% 23 16.30%
Type of antibiotic on initiation        
 Empiric 187 68.2% 77 57.9% 110 78%  < 0.001
 Prophylactic 61 22.3% 45 33.8% 16 11.3%  < 0.001
 Therapeutic/definitive 26 9.5% 11 8.3% 15 10.6% 0.323
Indication        
 Community acquired pneumonia 53 19.3% 13 9.8% 40 28.4%  < 0.001
 Sepsis, hospital acquired 29 10.6% 13 9.8% 16 11.3% 0.411
 Sepsis, community acquired 27 9.9% 13 10.5% 13 9.2% 0.436
 Bronchiolitis 26 9.5% 14 10.5% 12 8.5% 0.358
 CNS procedures e.g., EVD, VP shunt, tumor resection 23 8.4% 19 14.3% 4 2.8% 0.001
 Other 116 42.3% 60 45.1% 57 39.7% 0.217
Documented indication in medical chart        
 Yes 239 87.2% 117 88% 122 86.5% 0.430
 No 35 12.8% 16 12% 19 13.5%
Appropriate cultures        
 Yes 231 84.3% 109 82% 122 86.5% 0.322
 No 43 15.7% 24 18% 19 13.5%
Decision at 72 h for empiric (N = 187)        
 Changed 11 5.9% 6 7.8% 5 4.5% 0.364
 Continue with planned duration 64 32.2% 25 32.5% 39 35.5% 0.755
 No action taken 26 13.9% 16 20.8% 10 9.1% 0.031
 Discontinued 86 46% 30 39% 56 50.9% 0.136
Documented infection        
 Yes 60 21.9% 29 21.8% 31 22% 1
 No 214 78.1% 104 78.2% 110 78%
MDRO        
 Yes 25 41.7% 9 30% 16 53.3% 0.115
 No 35 58.3% 21 70% 14 46.7%
Duration of antibiotics course
Median days (25th–75th percentile)
8 5–13 10 6–14 7 4–10  < 0.001
  1. MDRO multi-drug resistant organisms