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Table 3 Impact of the intervention on the percentage reduction in each of the quality indicators across follow-up (median 19 months)

From: Impact of a multifaceted intervention to improve antibiotic prescribing: a pragmatic cluster-randomised controlled trial

ESAC Quality
Indicators [25]
Absolute Effect of intervention (95% CI)* % reduction in intervention group relative to control group (95% CI)* p-value*
1. DID of antibiotics for systemic use −0.63 (− 0.78, − 0.48) − 4.23 (− 5.26 to − 3.21) < 0.0001
2. DID of penicillins −0.52 (− 0.63, − 0.42) −6.51 (− 7.92 to − 5.22) < 0.0001
3. DID of cephalosporins −0.07 (− 0.11, − 0.03) − 3.89 (− 6.18 to − 1.65) 0.0002
4. DID of macrolides, lincosamides and streptogramins −0.06 (− 0.09, − 0.03) −3.45 (− 5.23 to − 1.70) < 0.0001
5. DID of quinolones −0.01 (− 0.05, 0.02) −0.47 (− 2.37 to 0.93) 0.3736
6. PCT of beta-lactamase-sensitive penicillinsa −0.01 (− 0.06 to 0.05) − 2.38 (− 15 to 11.63) 0.8223
7. PCT of combinations of penicillins with beta-lactamase inhibitors a −1.09 (− 1.42, − 0.76) − 2.79 (− 3.65 to − 1.94) < 0.0001
8. PCT of 3rd- and 4th-generationcephalosporins a −0.24 (− 0.36, − 0.12) −5.69 (− 8.63 to − 2.80) 0.0001
9. PCT of quinolones 0.13 (− 0.06 to 0.33) 0.91 (− 0.42 to 2.30) 0.1709
10. Ratio of consumption of broad- to narrow-spectrum penicillins, cephalosporins and macrolides - 5.37 (−8.23 to − 2.51) −8.97 (− 13.99 to − 4.12) 0.0002
  1. Abbreviations. PCT Percentage, DID Defined daily doses per 1000 inhabitants per day, ESAC European Surveillance of Antimicrobial Consumption
  2. * Calculated from a mixed-effects model. The estimated value for intervention measures is an interaction between the variable “group” (intervention vs. control) and the variable “period” (post-intervention vs. baseline), adjusted for the secular trend of the indicator. The models were adjusted for the covariates of Table 1 and the seasonality. The percentage reduction was calculated by using the baseline values of the control group as reference values
  3. a Percentage of total consumption of antibiotics for systemic use in DID