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Table 3 Summary of findings for length of hospital stay outcomes [35]

From: Evaluation of the health and healthcare system burden due to antimicrobial-resistant Escherichia coli infections in humans: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Burden of disease measure Type of antimicrobial resistance Number of participants (studiesa) Absolute effect, sMD (95% CI) Certainty of the evidence (GRADE)b Commentc
Total LOS Third-generation cephalosporin 888
(5 studies)
sMD not calculated due to considerable heterogeneity Downgraded due to serious inconsistency and imprecision
Quinolone 646 (8 studies) sMD not calculated due to substantial to considerable heterogeneity Downgraded due to serious inconsistency and imprecision
MDR Only reported in 1 study, meta-analysis and GRADE assessment not performed
Post-infection LOS Third-generation cephalosporin 538 (2 studies) 7.16 days higher (2.76 higher to 11.57 higher) Downgraded due to serious imprecision. Evidence to support upgrading outweighed by evidence to support downgrading.
Quinolone Not reported
MDR Not reported
  1. LOS, length of hospital stay; sMD, summary mean difference
  2. aAll studies were observational
  3. bGRADE assessment began at low instead of high, since studies were observational
  4. cDetails of GRADE assessment available in Additional file 23