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Table 6 Economic burden caused by inpatients with SDR and MDR infection or colonisation in China

From: Economic burden of antibiotic resistance in China: a national level estimate for inpatients

Economic burden ($ billion) SDR MDR ABR
Mean 95% UI Mean 95% UI Mean 95% UI
Direct economic burden          
Direct medical cost 6 5 7 24 22 25 30 27 32
Direct non-medical cost 2 2 2 3 3 4 5 5 6
Direct economic burden 8 7 9 27 25 29 35 32 38
Indirect economic burden          
Cost of productivity loss measured in DALYs 11 8 13 28 24 32 39 32 45
Cost of care giver 1 1 1 2 2 2 4 3 4
Indirect economic burden 12 9 15 30 26 34 42 35 49
Societal economic burden          
Socio-economic burden 20 16 24 57 51 63 77 67 87
Socio-economic burden accounted for GDP (%) 0.10 0.08 0.11 0.27 0.25 0.30 0.37 0.32 0.42
  1. SDR single-drug resistant, MDR multi-drug resistant, ABR antibiotic resistant, UI uncertainty interval, DALYs disability-adjusted life years, GDP gross domestic product