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Table 2 Subgroup meta-analysis of the proportion of non-prescription dispensing of antibiotics

From: Non-prescription dispensing of antibiotic agents among community drug retail outlets in Sub-Saharan African countries: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Subgroups Non-prescription dispensing of antibiotics(95% CI) Difference in estimate between categories (P value) Number of studies Heterogeneity
Study publication year a     
 2016–2020 0.76 (0.65–0.87) P = 0.066 16 I2 = 98.3%, P < 0.001
 2000–2015 0.51 (0.23–0.79) 6 I2 = 99.3%, P < 0.001
 < 2000 0.67 (0.54–0.77) 1 NA
Region     
 East Africa 0.69 (0.57–0.81) P = 0.66 21 I2 = 98.8%, P < 0.001
 Central Africa 0.47 (0.42–0.52) 1 NA
 West Africa 0.91 (0.87–0.94) 1 NA
Case scenarios     
 Multiple** 0.71 (0.53–0.88) P = 0.235 13 I2 = 99.0%, P < 0.001
 Single* 0.76 (0.64–0.89) 6 I2 = 95.9%, P < 0.001
 Not specified 0.52 (0.22–0.82) 4 I2 = 99.5%, P < 0.001
Number of visits***     
 ≤ 146 0.74 (0.65–0.83) P = 0.320 12 I2 = 92.9%, P < 0.001
 > 146 0.64 (0.46–0.82) 11 I2 = 99.4%, P < 0.001
Number of outlets***     
 ≤ 63 0.71 (0.57–0.86) P = 0.603 12 I2 = 98.5%, P < 0.001
 > 63 0.66 (0.48–0.85) 11 I2 = 99.2%, P < 0.001
  1. NA, not applicable
  2. aThe World Health Organisation issued the global strategy for containment of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in 2001, and global action plan to control AMR in 2015, categorised studies based on year using this fact
  3. **Studies used more than one case scenario (includes; diarrhoea, URTI, vaginal discharge, urethral discharge, UTI, wound/abscess, injury, typhoid, post-surgery etc.)
  4. *Studies used either diarrhoea or respiratory tract infection case scenarios
  5. ***Median was taken to set cut-off point for categorisation