Skip to main content

Table 3 Commonly assessed risk factors for intestinal carriage of drug-resistant E. coli, 2014-2019, stratified by travellers and general adults

From: Risk factors for fecal carriage of drug-resistant Escherichia coli: a systematic review and meta-analysis

  Travellers General adults
Risk Factor Number of studies investigated* Pooled OR (95%CI) χ2(P-value) l2(%) Number of studies investigated* Pooled OR (95%CI) χ2(P-value) l2(%)
General factors
Gender 4 1.14 (0.85-1.51) 2.17(0.54) 0 6 1.16 (0.90-1.50) 6.15 (0.29) 19
Diet restriction (vegetarian) 3 1.92 (1.13-3.26) 1.29 (0.52) 0 1 - - -
Pet 1 - - - 3 0.93 (0.70-1.24) 0.94 (0.63) 0
Education level 1 - - - 3 0.92 (0.63-1.35) 0.98 (0.81) 0
Clinical factors
Antimicrobial use 4 2.81 (1.47-5.36) 4.07 (0.25) 26 7 1.51 (1.17-1.94) 5.54 (0.48) 0
Previous hospital admission 1 - - - 5 1.47 (0.79-2.76) 5.54 (0.24) 28
Diarrhea 4 1.65 (1.02-2.68) 5.16 (0.16) 42 3 1.53 (1.27-1.84) 0.43 (0.80) 0
Travel related factors
International travel 0 - - - 6 1.13 (0.73-1.74) 10.73 (0.06) 53
Travel to Southeast Asia 5 1.93 (0.46-8.12) 41.24 (<0.01) 90 8 1.67 (1.02-2.73) 5.56 (0.06) 64
Travel to Africa 3 0.75 (0.29-1.96) 19.27 (<0.01) 90 2 - - -
Travel to India 3 3.80 (2.23-6.47) 1.62 (0.45) 0 1 - - -
  1. OR = Odds Ratio; CI = Confidence interval. Note: *indicates results from systematic review