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Table 3 Commonly assessed risk factors for intestinal carriage of drug-resistant E. coli, 2014-2019, stratified by travellers and general adults

From: Risk factors for fecal carriage of drug-resistant Escherichia coli: a systematic review and meta-analysis

 TravellersGeneral adults
Risk FactorNumber of studies investigated*Pooled OR (95%CI)χ2(P-value)l2(%)Number of studies investigated*Pooled OR (95%CI)χ2(P-value)l2(%)
General factors
Gender41.14 (0.85-1.51)2.17(0.54)061.16 (0.90-1.50)6.15 (0.29)19
Diet restriction (vegetarian)31.92 (1.13-3.26)1.29 (0.52)01---
Pet1---30.93 (0.70-1.24)0.94 (0.63)0
Education level1---30.92 (0.63-1.35)0.98 (0.81)0
Clinical factors
Antimicrobial use42.81 (1.47-5.36)4.07 (0.25)2671.51 (1.17-1.94)5.54 (0.48)0
Previous hospital admission1---51.47 (0.79-2.76)5.54 (0.24)28
Diarrhea41.65 (1.02-2.68)5.16 (0.16)4231.53 (1.27-1.84)0.43 (0.80)0
Travel related factors
International travel0---61.13 (0.73-1.74)10.73 (0.06)53
Travel to Southeast Asia51.93 (0.46-8.12)41.24 (<0.01)9081.67 (1.02-2.73)5.56 (0.06)64
Travel to Africa30.75 (0.29-1.96)19.27 (<0.01)902---
Travel to India33.80 (2.23-6.47)1.62 (0.45)01---
  1. OR = Odds Ratio; CI = Confidence interval. Note: *indicates results from systematic review